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Market Segmentation

Published October 11, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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Most experts agree that effective marketing campaigns communicate their messages directly to their intended audience. McDonald (2012) suggests that in addition, the objective of a successful advertising campaign is to gain the competitive advantage by building a loyal customer following providing them with products and services that meet the demands of clearly defined markets. Many advertisers fail to reach their target audience, however, because they rarely focus beyond the basic demographics. In addition, the complex arena of today’s marketplace presents many challenges for companies trying to identify their target audience. To address this, marketers implement various strategies of segmentation to divide potential consumers into different market groups recognizing that not all customers are created equally (McDonald, 2012). The focus of this research is centered on the importance of market segmentation and the components that are utilized to help companies develop a detailed understanding of their arena. For the sake of this analysis, the Apple Corporation’s iPad is included as an example product to help illustrate how marketers incorporate a variety of target market segmentation practices to help them develop their marketing campaigns. In addition, the study will also look at how core messages can be implemented to support these campaigns. The findings of this research will conclude that market segmentation is a strategy that can help corporations stop wasting money on ads that do not reach their intended buyers and is effective in helping companies identify their target audience.

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Definition

Market segmentation is an important component because it helps advertisers reach their core audience and turn them into advocates for their products and services. Many leaders know that advertising is a significant business strategy that fulfills a fundamental purpose. Gallagher and Zoratti (2012) explain that the marketing process: (a) defines markets, (b) quantifies the needs of customer groups within these markets to determine the value propositions, (c) communicates these value propositions effectively to those in the organization responsible for delivering them, (d) deliver these value propositions, and (e) monitor the value that is delivered. Many of today’s top performers in business are committed to consumer focus strategies. This is achieved through extensive data mining, analysis, and enriched profiling utilizing outside data sources in addition to behavioral, transactional, and conversational tracking methods. These strategies are designed to help companies define their markets and understand their value. These methods typically include incorporating: (a) the corporate mission and objectives which in turn helps determine markets of interest, (b) external data such as market research, and (c) internal data which flows from ongoing operations. The organization then processes this information and divides it into segments of consumers with similar needs so they can also predict future behavior (Gallagher & Zoratti, 2012). In other words, marketers gather sufficient data from consumers to help them quantify the needs of consumer groups to determine value propositions. Marketers then communicate their message implementing the company’s core values in their propositions to the appropriate parties in an effort to inspire action.

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Applications

Market Segmentation

Market Segmentation is one of the most efficient strategies available to advertisers because it helps them develop a unique selling proposition. Kennedy (2011) postulates that because of advances in technology, many companies have issues identifying the most appropriate media for the delivery of their message to prospects. In fact, most use media because that is the traditional course. This approach is both ineffective and inefficient. To construct a marketing campaign that conveys a powerful message, leaders must conduct a thorough survey of all the components they are up against (Kennedy, 2011). In short, their goal is to design a message that translates into a transformational experience that trumps all others and places them in their own category. One way to achieve this is to divide consumers into separate groups. For example, Baack and Clow (2012) explain that the foremost method of segmentation implemented employs demographics, or the characteristics of the inhabitants of that region. Typical examples include gender, age, education, income, and cultural ethnicity. Organizations use this information to construct products and services that meet specific demographic segments (Baack & Clow, 2012). For example, when the Apple Corporation introduced the iPad tablet as a new product, the goal was to convince their target audience that the new electronic devise was the future of computer technology and designed their campaigns to transmit that message effectively. Apple’s core message communicates their commitment to bring consumers the best products. In exchange for keeping their promise to deliver high quality merchandise, consumers agree to pay higher prices to support these innovations. Apple marketers that design their campaigns using market segmentation as a model will focus their campaigns based on the demographics of consumers that have the most influential buying power, which for this product could include such factors as income, education, geography, and age.

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Product Segmentation

Product Segmentation can help companies stop wasting money on campaigns that do not reach intended buyers. Godfrey (2007) purports that retailers need to present their products in ways that consumers can efficiently search and select them. The WalMart Corporation, like many large retail outlets, sells thousands of merchandise in a variety of categories including electronics, grocery, household, and personal care items. Their core value is transmitted in their company tagline: save money, live better. To help them keep their promise they must have knowledge and insight on consumer spending habits. One way the retail giant does this is by implementing a variety of segmentation techniques to better serve their clientele in a way they can discover more about them. First, their strategy identified and separated consumers into the following six categories as their target audience: Hispanics, African-Americans, Suburbanites, Rural Residents, Affluent, and Empty-nesters. Next, the store designed their layout by segmenting their products and organizing them into various categories. To enhance the shopping experience, for instance, merchandise is organized into collections of products to attract each target audience member. In other words, they present their merchandise in a way that is more appealing to target consumers by incorporating a methodology that identifies consumer behavior. This strategy helps them match consumers to specific groups of services and products (Godfrey, 2007). Retailers refer to this practice as product segmentation because they group and display products strategically in a manner that attracts a certain type of clientele. For example, consumers seeking the iPad tablet will find them situated in a specific location of the retail outlet with other popular electronic devices. These items are strategically placed where the eyes can find them quickly and easily. However, in keeping their promise to deliver high end merchandise, the Apple products are placed only where employees can access them under lock and key for security purposes. This is one example of how product placement and segmentation provides a significant model to help identify and serve target consumers more effectively.

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Generational Segmentation

Generational segmentation helps marketers identify groups of consumers that share similar experiences from common events. These occurrences help create bonds in individuals of a similar age group. Baack and Clow (2012) contend that similar experiences in certain age groups impact consumer perceptions, penchants, and social morals (Baack & Clow, 2012). Generational segmentation is one way Apple Corporation marketers, for example, can transmit their campaign messages to motivate a target audience to take action.  Apple’s website clearly states that their core message is a commitment to produce quality products. To demonstrate this concept, the promotion department may create a strategy to transmit that message to the Older Boomers age group for instance.  A campaign targeted at them would be developed in a different manner than a campaign that targets Generation Y, for instance, because each age group evolved with a different set of experiences. For example, Older Boomers grew up with TV shows like Star Trek. Knowing this, marketers can use this factor to influence their interest in iPad products because they remind them of the devices their heroes used in the show.  On the other hand, a marketer would appeal to Generation Y consumers based on the exciting new apps and features as the next evolution of the electronic devices they grew up with. Generational segmentation is an effective strategy that is utilized to help marketing experts transmit relevant information to the intended consumer.

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Benefit Segmentation

Benefit segmentation focuses on customer benefits or improvements that are provided by a product or service. Baack and Clow (2012) propose that demographic and psychographic information are united with benefit data to help identify these groups so that marketers can analyze further variables that affect their audience (Baack & Clow, 2012). For example, another strategy Apple Corporation marketers can develop to promote their product is one that highlights the benefits of the new iPad by comparing it to other tablets and portable laptop computers available on the market. Some of these benefits may focus attention on components like the larger viewing display, the lightweight design, and that it is more compact than laptop computers. Marketers that feature product benefits in their campaigns can attract consumers effectively. A company in the health care industry, however, like the Chopra Center, that wants to transmit the benefits of their facility and services to consumers, would implement completely different segmentation strategies based on the consumer’s desire to improve their fitness and maintain a healthy lifestyle. The Chopra Center in San Diego is designed and operated by licensed physicians and medical practitioners for a specific target audience. Chopra Center marketers for example, would identify individuals that are experiencing health issues who are looking for alternative methods in health care. The Center’s core message is to serve as a global source for balance, healing, transformation, and the expansion of awareness (Chopra & Simon, 2013). This is stated clearly on their website and in their promotional material. This declaration helps to provide consumers with confidence and security in the organizational management of their institution. As a medical facility that offers both products and services, it is important that their marketing campaigns keep their promises and are designed to protect them from fraud and liability issues that may arise. Companies that incorporate benefit segmentation are focused on fulfilling consumer needs based on a desire to improve their life in some manner.

Conclusion

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Leaders that acknowledge the concept that markets are not homogenous and use market segmentation strategies are in a better position to standout in their industry and maintain a competitive edge. Baack and Clow (2012) purport that developing effective targeted advertising is the key to a successful marketing campaign. Marketers that identify their target audience by implementing precision plans to influence consumer: (a) awareness, (b) knowledge, (c) liking, (d) preference, (e) conviction, and (f) the actual purchase, are significant elements that impact consumer buying power. These strategies are designed to impact consumer cognitive, affective, and conative components in an effort to produce a powerful feeling or experience that motives them to take action (Baack & Clow, 2012). The findings of this research conclude that market segmentation is an effective strategy that helps corporations stop wasting their advertising investments on campaigns that do not reach intended buyers, and plays a significant role to help them identify a target audience.

Next week my research work is centered on advertising strategies and media buying. Stay tuned … until then, have a great weekend everyone!

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References

Baack, D., & Clow, K. (2012). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

Chopra, D., & Simon, D. (2013). The Chopra Center for Well-Being. Retrieved July 14, 2013, from The Chopra Center for Well-Being: http://www.chopra.com/welcome-chopra-center

Gallagher, L., & Zoratti, S. (2012). Precision marketing: Maximizing revenue through relevance. London, UK: Kogan Page Ltd.

Godfrey, A. L. (2007). A product segmentation approach and its relationship to customer segmentation approaches and recommendation system approaches. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Retrieved September 25, 2012, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304811614?accountid=32521

Kennedy, D. (2011). The ultimate marketing plan: Target your audience (Fourth ed.). Avon, MA, USA: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.

McDonald, M. (2012). Market segmentation: How to do it and how to profit from it. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Corporate Image and Brand Name

Published October 4, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

 

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There are many components that define a corporate image to help it stand apart from a corporate brand name. For example, in the past, many international travelers jokingly referred to the BA acronym of British Airways to mean Bloody Awful. This was a reflection of the negative corporate image they developed due to the onslaught of consumer complaints that surfaced with respect to the incompetent manner in which the airlines operated and treated their customers. This research provides a brief analysis on the topics of corporate images, their brand names, and the significant components that differentiate them. In addition, the study will disclose how they are related and provide further examples to help illustrate these concepts. The findings of this research will conclude that even though brands names are assigned to goods or services, there are many components that make them stand apart from a corporate image and that ultimately, the unification of these two components, serve to effectively communicate what the company represents to help shape the attitude of their shareholders.

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Corporate Image

One of the most significant components of a corporate image is that it communicates the benefits of a company’s goods and services that appeal to consumer emotions. Ross (2010) explains that a corporate image should represent the following three components: (a) the company’s story, (b) their core purpose, and (c) the promises they make to consumers. In short, a corporate image reflects the organization’s reputation that will ultimately live on in the memories of consumers. To put it another way, a corporate image is what consumers say about a company, not about what a company says about themselves. In addition, a corporate image can help shape and influence the decisions consumers make and the actions they take (Ross, 2010). For instance, when many individuals think of a company like Denny’s, images immediately flood their head including tasty food, a welcoming atmosphere, and heartwarming family gatherings. These images reflect positive experiences with the restaurant chain. Positive emotions translate to feelings of joy and comfort which in turn produces loyal consumers. Successful companies like Denny’s, Honda, and Nike provide excellent illustrations of companies that have established strong corporate images. In fact, they have experienced unprecedented success because they all incorporate a mission as part of their corporate image. These identify what the company stands for and are usually revealed in the tag lines of their ads to support the company image or brand.

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Simply explained, a corporate image summarizes what the company stands for and the feelings they emote from their customers. In addition, Vincent (2012) purports that equally important to a company’s image or brand, is that they keep the promises they make and deliver a powerful experience (Vincent, 2012). For example, when people think of the Disney Company, many images and feelings are evoked depending on a person’s experience with the company or their family offshoots, like the Disney theme parks, or the many Disney movies that may have had a profound impact on them. This is yet another example of how a memorable experience with an organization can influence consumer emotions in both positive and negative ways. What an individual feels after their experience interacting with a company, whether happy, more confident, or embarrassment and defeat, are all components that help shape a company’s corporate image. Companies that display consistent behavior, communicate clear messages, and keep their promises, can guide investments and grow substantially regardless of budget constraints or time crunches whether they are a startup, a nonprofit, or a big conglomerate like a Nike or Disney.

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The negative feelings many people had about British Airlines, for instance, mentioned at the beginning of this research, presents another excellent case of the impact a tarnished corporate image can have on an organization as well as create new opportunities. For example, this situational challenge in the airline industry was the catalyst that motivated The Virgin Company’s entrepreneurial giant, Richard Branson, to take action. Out of frustration from his own travel experiences and banking on the stellar corporate image of the Virgin brand, Branson developed an offshoot company and launched Virgin Airlines. He was able to recognize a problem that existed that many airlines did not want to address at the time: quality service. Driven by fierce determination to tackle these issues, Virgin Airlines went on to become a huge success in the aviation industry. In the meantime, Hatch and Schultz (2008) explain that British Airways used the negative publicity as incentive to make changes and by the 1990s, BA’s conditions improved significantly. With the strategic help of marketing experts they were able to change those negative perceptions to reposition BA and turn their reputation around. One of the strategies incorporated to achieve this goal was the development of a new tagline that focused on positive concepts that professed the company had become “the world’s favorite airline.”  Emphasizing the word favorite helped them devise a new corporate image and created a symbol that attracted consumers which helped put BA back in a dominant position in their industry (Hatch & Schultz, 2008). By developing a new strategy BA was effectively able to communicate a new attitude that won back trust from consumers.

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Brand Name

Many people are often confused by the term brand and the differences that constitute a brand and a brand name. While a corporate image or brand summarizes what a company stands for, the brand name, on the other hand, consists of the company name and the symbols that are incorporated to clearly communicate what an organization stands for. Baack and Clow (2012) explain that a company’s logo identifies brand names and embodies the symbols that distinguish the company, its products, and their services. A logo therefore, represents the emblem that adds an additional aspect to a corporation’s image that supports the organization’s name and mission (Baack & Clow, 2012). For example, because the mind processes images faster than it does words, logo identification occurs in the following two ways: (a) a memory recall or recognition of the logo and (b) an emotional recall of that individual’s experience with the company. Nike’s swoosh logo for instance, is merely the graphic representation of the company symbol that together with the brand name evokes various emotions, memories, and ideas.

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The design of the logo is a significant feature because in many cases, the company’s brand name will include a number of products under one family name. The Apple Corporation, for example, provides many quality electronic products for consumers, including computers, smartphones, music devices, and tablets. Their corporate brand name is one of the most recognizable symbols in the global marketplace because they continue to deliver innovative quality products and keep their promises. In fact, consumers are so passionate and loyal about their merchandise, they are sought after in an unparalleled fashion witnessed by the long lines at Apple outlets stores each time a new product is launched. In short, a company’s brand name represents the company’s image and is designed to support a positive reputation by keeping the promises they make to their shareholders. Virgin Airlines for instance, provided quality service but was supported and backed by the stellar reputation of the Virgin brand name. This is one of the most effective ways to launch a new product or company.  An established giant like Virgin or Apple can provide many components to help a new offshoot achieve success. This is how brand names and corporate images support each other.

Conclusion

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Brand names represent the symbols assigned to goods or services that in turn help shape and define a corporate image. Fombrun (1996) reminds us that the world has grown to worship greatness. People in modern society value aptitude, celebrate talent, exalt brilliance, and revere genius. Contemporary athletes, for instance, that compete in the Olympic Games are not paid a salary. For them, receiving a medal is a far more valuable asset due to one significant tenet: a reputation as a top performer. This provides the foundation that helps them develop an image they can use to build their brand name. The rise of mass marketing makes it possible to achieve greater levels of prestige and wealth whether as an athlete, politician, artist, or organization, because the competition for a stellar reputation is fierce. Many people in fact, wallow in the radiance of their heroes and often elevate them to near mythological status expecting perfection in return (Fombrun, 1996). A majority have the same expectations of the companies they support, the products they purchase, and often assign corporations similar iconic positions. Not only are people shaped and influenced by a company’s decisions and innovations, they are content to support these giants on their high altars of fame. The findings of this research conclude that there are many components that differentiate a corporate image from a corporate brand name. The keys to building an effective positive corporate image include a clear communication of: (a) the benefits a company’s goods and services they provide, (b) a mission that is part of their corporate message, and (c) keeping their promises. The combination of these components help effectively communicate what the company represents that helps shape the attitude of their shareholders which in turn motivates them to offer their loyalty and support.

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References

Baack, D., & Clow, K. (2012). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

Fombrun, C. (1996). Reputation: Realizing value from the corporate image. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

Hatch, M., & Schultz, M. (2008). Taking brand initiative. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.

Ross, M. (2010). Branding basics for small business: How to create an irresistible brand on any budget. Bedford, IN, USA: NorLightsPress.com.

Learning Organizations and Effectiveness – Part II

Published May 17, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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Transitioning Into a Learning Organization

As the world continues to expand, older models of running an organization, under the direction of a unilateral black box control system, are proving ineffective. These forms of control usually develop from individuals trying to control the situation like Steve Jobs displayed during his reign at Apple. In today’s ever evolving marketplace, leaders are finding success by developing organizations that center on relationships with the intent of creating a whole entity from a variety of components. This is a type of operational control system that is attached to ongoing and real time explanations between divisions and is designed to achieve stability in organizational relationships (Espejo & Reyes, 2011).

Institutions that are making the transition into an effective, well-oiled learning-machine incorporate mechanisms to include a systematic collection of information for analysis and dissemination. They are open to new ideas and focus on cooperative education and training by conceiving programs that meet their needs. Learning is conducted over an expanse of time. Leaders implement clear communication devices, seek unfiltered information, and engage in advanced levels of problem solving. These are tools that help motivate staffers to work together in a cohesive manner and require full participation as well as accountability (Cates, 2009). Organizations that embrace openness to criticism and accept change increase their odds in succeeding.

To effectively transit into a learning organization, leaders must conduct annual and monthly reviews to help identify their strengths and weaknesses. Information collected from these reports is used to decide strategies that can assist to develop higher skill levels.  Used effectively they provide systems that serve to motivate advanced performances (Silberman, 2007). For example, annual reviews give insight to the volume of transactions an organization generates, identifies individuals who experience more developed levels of achievement, and reveals areas where improvement is needed. These systems help organizations strengthen their weaknesses.

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Four Motivational Characteristics

Companies are likely to achieve higher levels of success by becoming a learning organization because it fosters a climate of collaboration. Four motivational characteristics of an effective learning organization are: (1) collection of data and intelligence, (2) experiential learning processes, (3) experimentation with new ideas, and (4) changing unfavorable conditions by sharing information and building strong relationships (Garvin, 2000).

The Collection of Data and Intelligence – Because organizations are not always adept at delivering positive outcomes, devising methods to collect data and intelligence from personnel, suppliers, partners, distributors, consumers, and others is essential. This can be accomplished by methods that measure performance levels. This includes surveys, observation, appraisal systems, financial reviews, knowledge testing and skill assessments that are used to ascertain performance levels, and competency gaps (Roberts, 2012).

The Experiential Learning Process – Most scholars are in agreement that experience is a factor that is underestimated and in some cases disregarded. However, research reveals that experience pervades all manners of the learning process. Experiential learning encompasses an individual’s active engagement from both the inner and outer world. Active participation is the key element of experiential learning because it involves the entire person through thoughts, emotions, and physical activity (Beard & Wilson, 2006).

Experimentation of New Ideas – Experimentation is a fairly new concept in organizational management and therefore an uncommon practice other than for market research and research and development purposes. For experimentation to truly become effective, organizations must encourage an open atmosphere that considers all views. Experimentation in this context attempts to produce or prove something new and creates a series of events and activities that can be analyzed in order to discover unidentified barriers. Effective experiments gather data that is important in the development and management of the organization (McClain & Smith, 2006).

Sharing Information – Effective leaders also understand the importance of collaborative management and develop cohesive systems. They build strong relationships and create a foundation in which they become more adept at working together to achieve outcomes and desired solutions. By establishing a shared vision and clear channels to open communication where people feel safe in sharing knowledge, they build a genuine trust and camaraderie. This is an integral component that can determine a company’s failure or success. Efficient business collaboration unites individuals, increases performance and productivity, and gives an organization a competitive advantage (Peterson, 2001).

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Achieving Goals

Learning organizations that work together and collaborate are capable of achieving higher levels of success because everyone is focused on a common goal that is larger than their individual goals. For example, they strive to make their organization safer, logical, standardized, and fluid. Additionally, they are connected in more cost effective ways, upgrading their systems and policies in doing so (Galsworth, 2005).

Furthermore, organizations strive to ensure they achieve the outcomes they desire.  Once data from knowledge management systems are collected, received, interpreted, and processed, priorities and deadlines are implemented to help keep them on track to accomplish their goals. Follow ups and feedback are essential to monitor effective and ineffective systems. Evaluation of systems and experimental results also helps discern errors and is factored in for the development or adjustments that will make the organization run more efficiently and the staff work together more productively.

Organizations also implement the use of electronic communication devices as a means to achieve their goals and facilitate the learning experience. This includes the implementation of discussion boards, social networking, and instant messaging tools. These components allow organizations to communicate and coordinate events and programs in real time from remote locations removing time and space limitations. In addition, organizations work collaboratively to address and achieve larger goals like environment problems, unemployment, urban development and more (Fink, 2007).

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Identifying Obstacles

Today’s leaders are learning to become more flexible as they endure enormous amounts of external pressure to survive.  In order to achieve the desired outcomes leaders are required to identify the following types of system blindness that can hinder their goals: (a) spatial, (b) temporal, (c) relational, (d) process, and (e) uncertainty. Spatial blindness, for example, only allows a fragmented viewing of a system, not the entire whole. Relational system blindness, on the other hand, is the perception an individual may experience by perceiving only what is happening to them, not necessarily what is occurring elsewhere. Identifying system blind spots can help leaders understand some of the challenges they encounter (Oshry, 2007).

Situations that are stressful and create fear also create obstacles. For example, Reason’s (2010) studies indicate leaders who engage in methods of intimidation constrict the learning process. Because of this, leaders must learn that fostering a culture of stress and fear creates an environment that encourages learning disabilities (Reason, 2010). Leaders who are able to identify organizational disabilities can tackle elements that threaten a company’s productivity. Instead, they adopt strategies to support organizational learning by creating an environment that nurtures innovative patterns of thinking. Therefore, organizations need to work together to achieve a collective vision that thrives and must strategically implement programs and systems that are designed to help them produce the outcomes they desire. In doing so, they can motivate genuine learning. Team members are inspired because they are focused on more significant matters. Effective leaders know how to bridge teamwork and fabricate a creative climate that is free from confining attitudes (Senge, 2006). Leaders who have functioned together as part of a team or group that has achieved extraordinary goals comprehend the advantages of a collaborative learning experience. There is an acknowledgment and recognition in each other’s strengths and compensation to make up for each other’s weaknesses.

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Strategies for Successful Outcomes

Learning organizations have the ability to introduce innovative opportunities that solve issues. One fundamental element to efficient learning is the innate ability to reflect and review the learning process. This helps identify which methods are effective and which are not. Spitzer (2007) postulates the key to success is measurement because it can reveal the organization’s current position in the marketplace, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and helps in the development of new goals. For this reason, performance measures have a transformational effect (Spitzer, 2007).

Decentralization of the decision making process is another effective strategy for positive outcomes. This exists where organizations foster a climate of trust and unbiased communication systems. This model can address the needs of the whole company rather than that of one individual who is leading with a personal agenda. In addition, when organizations run into issues based on gender, race, and age, working together in collaborative effort can minimize these kinds of challenges (Peterson, 2001).

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Conclusion

The reality is that we are all discovering how to learn together and are inherently evolving into a learning community. Leaders are beginning to understand that people are capable of learning quicker when they put their attention on actions that solve problems. In the long run, an organization’s ability to learn faster than the competition will likely be the key component to their longevity. This research concludes that a healthy learning environment fosters good decision making. It is derived from knowledge, hard work, experience, and in some cases, as a result of bad decision making. Organizations that learn to adapt by identifying their errors and seek new opportunities for learning will set themselves up for a prosperous existence.

A successful learning organization is the driving engine that motivates and inspires individuals. The most effective leaders today are flexible, apply active listening skills, and develop methods that will improve organizational performances. Even though it stifles growth, organizations are likely to achieve higher levels of success by becoming a learning organization because it fosters a climate of trust; creates a culture of decentralized decision making; and it integrates people, systems, and technology. Leaders that adapt a learning paradigm will most likely outlive those resistant to change.

References:

Baack, D. (2012). Organizational behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Beard, C., & Wilson, J. (2006). Experiential learning: A best practice handbook (2nd ed.). London, England, UK: Kogan Page.

Bingham, T., & Conner, M. (2010). The new social learning: a guide to transforming organizations through social media. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Blevins, R. (2001). A study of association between organizational trust and decision-making, communications, and collaboration in comprehensive, regional institutions of higher education. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved April24 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304707494?accountid=32521

Cates, C. L. (2009, May 17). The creation of a large scale corporate feedback system with a view toward learning organizations and sustainable change in higher education. Cincinnati, OH, USA: ProQuest LLC. Retrieved April 4, 2013

Espejo, R., & Reyes, A. (2011). Organizational systems: Managing complexity with the viable system model. New York, NY: SPi Publisher Services.

Fink, L. (2007, Jul-Sep). Coordination, learning, and innovation: The organizational roles of e-collaboration and their impacts. International Journal of E-Collaboration. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. Retrieved April 24, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/222376102?accountid=32521

Galsworth, G. (2005). Visual workplace visual thinking. Portland, OR: Visual-Lean Enterprise Press.

Garvin, D. (2000). Learning in action: A guide to putting the learning organization to work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Haney, D. (2003). Knowledge management in a professional service firm. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Ann Arbor, IN, USA: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305334057?accountid=32521

McClain, B., & Smith, D. (2006). Experimentation in a collaborative planning environment. Monterey, CA: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.

Oshry, B. (2007). Seeing systems: Unlocking the mysteries of organizational life. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Peterson, M. (2001, February). International collaboration in organizational behavior research. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Chichester, US: Wiley Periodicals Inc. Retrieved April 24, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/224884660?accountid=32521

Reason, C. (2010). Leading a learning organization. Bloomington, IN : Solution Tree Press.

Roberts, J. (2012). Beyond learning by doing: Theoretical currents in experiential education. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Schein, E. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Senge, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday Publishing.

Silberman, M. (2007). The handbook of experiential learning. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Spitzer, D. R. (2007). Transforming performance measurement: Rethinking the way we measure and drive organizational success. New York, NY: AMACOM Books.

Ward, T. (2006). Implementing knowledge management to support effective decision making in a joint military environment: Key enablers and obstacles. Minneapolis, MN, USA: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304910517?accountid=32521

Wick, C., Pollock, R., & Jefferson, A. (2010). The six disciplines of breakthrough learning. San Franciso, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Creative Disruption

Published February 25, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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There are many things that can impact creativity in the entrepreneurial process within the workforce of an organization. Echeverria (2012) postulates that there is nothing more challenging for a leader than managing creativity effectively to assist with breakthroughs and the delivery process of new innovations. Idea agents require support and freedom in the creative process. Effective leaders support innovators by: (a) providing authentic leadership that inspires and motivates individuals to perform at optimum levels, (b) understanding and identifying the idiosyncrasies, strengths and weaknesses of creative personalities, (c) letting innovative individuals take flight, encouraging them to keep in alignment with the organization’s interests, and (d) creating a clear configuration of structure that liberates the creative spirit and nurtures a culture of empowerment (Echeverria, 2012).

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Simon (2010) contends that another component that can disrupt the creative process are the entrepreneurs who have concerns about technological innovations that may eliminate the need for certain skills; replace workers; and require training on new systems. For example, because of technological advances a small restaurant can attract new clients without a marketing budget through the internet; an iPad case manufacturer can generate over $1 million in profits in just a few months with only a handful of employees; or a voice over company can connect artists with opportunities without expensive hardware and software (Simon, 2010). These are new frontiers that can prohibit adaptation to change.

79.03.EntrepreneurWithin

Although new innovations may be disruptive and cause alarm for some entrepreneurs, the most successful ones recognize new challenges as opportunities for growth.  This is the mindset and focus of an effective entrepreneurially managed firm. A trailblazing entrepreneur uses opportunity: (a) as a stimulating agent to address challenges, (b) to find resourceful adaptations and solutions, and (c) to discover the best way to capitalize on it (Bygrave & Zacharakis, 2010). This entrepreneurial philosophy is in alignment with the kind of corporate entrepreneurship that encourages associates with innovative ideas like Apple’s Steve Wozniack and Disney’s Don Bluth to remain within an organization rather than branch out to create competition. Corporate entrepreneurship support is fundamental.  With the aid of incentives and rewards, trailblazers are encouraged to pursue innovative ideas as well as participate in the creative and decision making process. This strategy can be beneficial and a profitable experience for both the entrepreneurial innovator and the organization.

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References:

Bygrave, W., & Zacharakis, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Echeverria, L. (2012). Idea agent: Leadership that liberates creativity. New York, NY: AMACOM Publishing.

Simon, P. (2010). The new small: How a new breed of small businesses is harnessing the power of emerging technologies. Henderson, NV: Motion Publishing.