Emerald Group Publishing

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Ethics and Health Care

Published August 7, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair


A majority of US citizens are concerned about their health care. Spinks and Wells (1996) contend that many issues, including rising costs, have prompted a closer investigation into the behavior of health care providers and institutions from an ethical perspective (Spinks & Wells, 1996). The major challenges we as Americans face, are implementing effective methods to maintain and monitor our health and well-being in partnership with our medical practitioners and insurance systems that support overall care. Americans are looking to tackle such problems as: (a) poorly or inadequately equipped facilities, (b) long waiting times, (c) substandard conditions, (d) misconduct from practitioners, and (e) exorbitant medical, hospital, and pharmaceutical costs. In addition, the dilemma most people face is that health care costs consume large portions of a family income, while the majority of health care practitioners enjoy lifestyles and salaries extensively higher than most of the patients they care for. To add insult to injury, most high ranking government officials and politicians selected by the people they serve, are provided with lifelong health care benefits while vast portions of the constituents they represent have none. Many people feel that because the representatives they elected to serve them are provided with health care, that the public should also be entitled to the same health care benefits and privileges. After all, the tax paying citizens are the stakeholders that hired these government officials to serve their interests.

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Everyone in society has a right to be healthy and enjoy the highest quality health care system of their choice, however because of ever changing conditions in modern society, this ideal has been a difficult outcome for many to achieve. Ferrell et al. (2012) suggest that the ever changing global market also contributes to health care issues. For example, because of global health care fraud, businesses and governments are depriving individuals the resources to receive quality products and health care (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2013). For example, many corporate bosses take advantage of countries that export products with substandard oversight systems in place. This atmosphere allows them to engage in short cut practices that result with products that provide less medicine in their packaging. The falsification of insurance claims is another problem that arises and often results in higher insurance rates. In addition, some companies provide incentives for referrals while others compensate doctors and hospitals for buying their products. Until the playing field is leveled in the global market place and these various conditions exist from country to county, closer scrutiny is required to detect and deter ethical misconduct.


In the meantime, many people debate on whether or not health care is a universal right that should be provided by governments. A large population believes that because good health supports productivity that governments should provide citizens with health care systems that support their well-being. Countries like Germany for example, consider health care a right every citizen is entitled to and provides high-quality health care services. Others who believe health care is a privilege tend to be the corporations who stand to profit from health care systems, in which case becomes a matter of ethics. Where ever corporate giants produce systems that place profits ahead of the welfare of their stakeholders it’s only a matter of time before the contamination is exposed and changes are introduced. Furlong and Morrison (2014) contend that one must have a solid foundation in theory and principles of ethics to make the most effective professional decisions. Leaders who abide and comprehend the knowledge of ethics and understanding, particularly of alternative views, create an environment of cultural competence (Furlong & Morrison, 2014). In conclusion, there are no easy answers. First and foremost, each citizen should take responsibility, educate themselves in preventative care and work in partnership with their government and medical institutions to come up with the most effective methods to create a health care system that everyone can benefit from. In short, it is the citizens that make up society. It is the citizens that protect and support their governments and the institutions that provide services and goods. In turn these institutions should not question whether it is their duty or right to protect those that support them. In return for their support and loyalty, these institutions should show appreciation and gratitude to their stakeholders. It is their obligation to do what they can to protect the hands that support them which includes access to the same quality health care they are entitled to. It is the right of each individual to live life to their fullest potential with systems in place that include support for prevention education and maintenance of the public’s health and well-being. The bottom line is, without the continual support of their stakeholders, these institutions will find it extremely difficult to experience longevity and success.



Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell. (2013). Business ethics and social responsibility (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Furlong, B., & Morrison, E. (2014). Health care ethics. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Spinks, N., & Wells, B. (1996). The context of ethics in the health care industry. Health Manpower Management. Keele, England, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing, Ltd. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/206620783?accountid=32521

Repatriating Employees

Published June 26, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair


The most significant strategy organizations can implement to retain repatriated employees upon their return from an international assignment is to become a positive partnering force and an active participant in the expatriate and repatriate processes. Hyder (2007) deduced that leaders who develop and design effective programs to assist the employee and their families in the expatriate and repatriate process fostered deeper relationships and connections with their employees. When a staff member has a positive experience with expatriation and repatriation, they perform at higher levels and are likely to stay in a long term commitment with the organization (Hyder & Lovblad, 2007). For example, when an employee is assigned an international position, they need to have a firm grasp on their new culture both in and out of the organizational climate. For instance, not knowing the differences between AC and DC current can present a huge problem for an American family trying to plug in their electronic devices. Another challenge they will encounter is when they make an attempt to purchase a DVD. If they are not cognizant of PAL and NTSC formatting they will face more challenges and create stressful situations. A lack of knowledge can have enormous impact if they are not identified and addressed prior to the relocation process. In addition, making sure employees learn how to navigate through their region is equally important in countries like Britain where the road systems are designed for driving on the left side. These are the kinds of the issues that can cause distress and anxiety for an individual that is not trained or prepared.


When expatriates return after a substantial amount of time living in a different environment they must find a way to readjust because so many changes may have occurred during their absence. Hyder (2007) suggested that leaders design systems to help employees understand that the repatriation process is a crucial part of the training for an international position. In addition, they need to know that the organization is backing them with their assistance and moral support (Hyder & Lovblad, 2007). Foreign assignment employees must learn to adjust to a new environment and when they finally make the adjustment and begin to feel comfortable, the assignment is completed and they return to their home land, only to have to readjust to the changes that occurred during their absence. For example, due to a medical condition, as a young teenager I was sent to Greece alone. Although I stayed with relatives and had a pretty firm grasp of the language I still experienced a severe level of cultural shock. I had never traveled alone  before, especially to a country outside the US. I was not prepared for the trip. However, when my father advised me that within a few days I was to spend my entire summer vacation in Athens I became upset and nervous. I had been looking forward to spending the summer school break with local friends. At that time, no one in my family had the tools to help manage my anxiety and fears of traveling, let alone getting adjusted to a foreign country. I was hesitant to go because I was not prepared for the experience. However, once I adjusted to the new culture and got into a routine, by the end of my three month visit, I did not want to return to the states. When I did, I found myself feeling like a foreigner in my own country because no one helped me with the repatriation process. My friends made fun of the new style and manner of communication I adopted. I felt alone and isolated. Today however, with advances in modern technology like Skype, Instant messaging, and other forms of social media, people are finding ways to keep better connected with their home land, while they are away on foreign assignments.


Organizational leaders that establish effective programs and systems to assist employees in the expatriate and repatriate processes, help employees and their families transit smoothly and thereby create a more pleasant experience overall. Employees that are happy are likely to remain loyal to an organization who value their staffers and invest in their health and well-being. Dessler (2011) purported that organizations who provide employees with a repatriation process that includes: (a) a realistic view of what to anticipate, (b) effective orientation programs, (c) screening devices to assess weaknesses and strengths, and (d) efficient benefit packages to assist them, improve their success rate of retaining personnel after they return from international assignments (Dessler, 2011). Leaders who help employees identify their own culture and help them acclimate to the new foreign culture, will most likely have a positive experience. When employees are supported by their organization, staff members feel more confident and motivated. In this state, they are better equipped to make effective decisions and perform at higher levels. In conclusion, an organization that supports their employees in the expatriation and repatriation processes, creates a culture that develops more productive staff members who will remain loyal and active in driving the success of an organization.


Dessler, G. (2011). A framework for human resource management (Sixth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Hyder, A., & Lovblad, M. (2007, January). The repatriation process – a realistic approach. Career Develop International. Bradford, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing, Limited. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13620430710745890

Palmer, T., & Varner, I. (2005). Role of cultural self-knowledge in successful expatriation. Singapore Management Review. Singapore, Singapore: Singapore Institute of Management. Retrieved June 09, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/226851345?accountid=32521

How Organizations Can Maximize the Success of Expatriate Employees

Published June 24, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

Nächste Ausfahrt - Expatriate

There are many things organizations can do to maximize the likelihood of success with respect to the expatriation process of their employees. Palmer and Varner’s (2005) research suggested that employers work in partnership with their employees and train them effectively. Their findings suggested that employers can do so in four stages: (a) a pre-screening phase to assess whether the employee meets the qualifications and support of their family as a viable candidate for the assignment, (b) the self-discovery stage where employees train, identify, and study personal cultural awareness including the pros and cons, (c) the education and training stage to identify and study the visible and invisible culture (reasons) of the foreign country, including an analysis of their responses and acceptance levels, and (d) instruction, exploration, and implementation of strategies designed to help make the necessary changes and adaptations to adjust to the foreign culture (Palmer & Varner, 2005). The most important aspect of this model is that training is a significant component of the process.


Leaders are beginning to discover that the single point of failure in the expatriation process is the employee’s experience of the process. Hyder and Lovblad (2007) deduced that an individual’s success as an expatriate was contingent on whether they had a positive or negative experience. In addition, their research concluded that the experience was more favorable when the organization participated in both the expatriation and repatriation phases with the employee and their families (Hyder & Lovblad, 2007). For example, when employers devise systems and training programs to help both the executive and their family understand and help assist them in the relocation and acclamation process as well as when they return from the assignment, employees tend to experience a smoother transition making the experience more pleasant and manageable. In most cases, when organizations invest in the welfare of the employee and their families, the employee is likely to offer their loyalty and work hard for the organization. Employers that do not participate in this process risk losing a valuable employee as well as not having access to the information and experience that employee gained from the assignment. This is very significant component for multinational organizations that want an edge on the competitive global market.


One of the most important things an organization can do to prevent the employee from having a negative experience is become a partner with them in the expatriation process by first helping them identify their own organization’s culture and values as well as that of their home country. Dessler (2011) suggested that employers design training systems focused on cultural differences to bring awareness of the impact these variances have on business outcomes (Dessler, 2011). For example, an immigrant from France trying to establish a small business with limited education and ethnocentric views, may find it difficult to adjust to the norms of the US work schedule where shops do not shut down in mid-afternoon like they do in many of the EU countries. This aspect of doing business in a new country creates culture shock for those unfamiliar with the work schedules of that region. Employers and organizations can create a win-win situation in the expatriation process if they train and work in partnership with employees who are selected for international work assignments. A leader that shows they value their employees will most likely inspire staff members to perform at higher levels that are happy to offer the organization their loyalty and full commitment. With this strategy, organizations gain invaluable information from their expatriate employees and also benefit from having an edge on the global marketplace from the results of these successful experiences.


Dessler, G. (2011). A framework for human resource management (Sixth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Hyder, A., & Lovblad, M. (2007, January). The repatriation process – a realistic approach. Career Develop International. Bradford, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing, Limited. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13620430710745890

Palmer, T., & Varner, I. (2005). Role of cultural self-knowledge in successful expatriation. Singapore Management Review. Singapore, Singapore: Singapore Institute of Management. Retrieved June 09, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/226851345?accountid=32521

The Management of Change

Published April 26, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair


Change is an accepted reality in the survival of organizations and plays a significant role in the longevity of a company. It requires organizations to incorporate new practices.  Simply put, change means doing things differently. Change management leaders are looking to achieve goals and objectives from the implementation of strategic planning.  In designing the change process, executives must connect their objectives with the experiences of the past that led to the necessity of change.  In addition, leaders must tune in and engage in active listening to personnel in order to reconstruct and comprehend from the input, the way they perform, and use their intellect to assist in the management of change. Employees in this instance become involved as peers and confidantes who can challenge, alter, or replace the assumptions and goals of upper management (Neilissen & Martine van Selm, 2008). In other words, staff members become co-producers in the communication process that leads to the designated change.  This research examines various elements that organizations procure in the planning and execution of change and the methods they implement to help them achieve their goals.


Change Mechanisms

Yarberry (2007) suggests that at the core of change management, information and general control is required to support business functions. He postulates that while change control is conceptually simple, the mechanisms implemented and observed require attention to detail as well as support. His research concludes that change management cycles must address the following questions: What is the size and significance of the change? Who is requesting the change? Is the end goal possible to achieve? Is there urgency? What are the obstacles? How many people will be required to complete the project?  Full change management is a bureaucratic experience and a complicated process. If the tasks are coalesced and the participants meet regularly, it can be made to work efficiently. Creating templates, workflow plans, and good communication will help make the process more effective (Yarberry, 2007).


Stanley’s (2007) research extrapolates that management development and organizational change are deeply connected. His studies suggest that management development is often focused on technical and professional skills rather than the more complicated contexts of change which include the structural, cultural, political, emotional, and psychological influences involved in change. The regularity and intensity of change that most organizations are subject to highlights the importance of effective management development. Some of the greatest challenges an enterprise faces are from ineffective leadership and a lack of effective organizational change. This includes the recruitment of individuals, retaining (and most important) the development of strong managers, and creating a successful management team (Stanley, 2007).


Change Programs

Efficient programs of change must be highly effective at communication. Merrell’s (2012) research suggests that there are six components that influence the success of change. The ability to: (1) lead, (2) communicate, (3) learn (4) measure, (5) involve, and (6) sustain the organization during and after the process.  To elaborate on these components further, leaders must first, for example, present a clear vision with intents and purposes to inspire confidence in the workplace.  In addition, the best decisions occur when executives are better informed. This is achieved by involving the personnel who are affected by the change with their input and feedback.  Good communication fosters the learning process and helps to motivate employees. Next, staffers must engage in the learning process to acquire knowledge and the necessary skills needed to make adaptations.  In addition, establishing a system that incorporates the use of metrics can help define and support improvement with clear measurable goals.  Some of these goals include staying on target and within budget. Leaders can then analyze the process and progress of the change program. The finish line, however, does not occur upon completion of the change management project.  In fact, the change must endure.  This is accomplished by reviewing the entire system, processes, policies, technology, and structures necessary that support and sustain the organization in the post-change world (Merrell, 2012). Organizations that conceive and create an effective plan and execute change well are most likely the institutions that will outperform their peers.



The role of change is the key to the survival of any organization. Research conducted by Hammoud (2008) purports that managers can achieve long-term business goals and objectives through carefully constructed strategies. Empirical evidence suggests that high failure rate is due to a leader’s inability to incorporate projects in alignment with established business strategies. Technology, focus on customer service, and a new global marketplace are some of the driving forces that lead organizations to embark on change. These significant elements affect the fluctuation of customer needs, buying patterns, markets, and channels (Hammoud, 2008). Organizations that develop an efficient action management plan and execute change successfully, by doing so on time and within budget, engaging in effective communication that fosters understanding, and achieving stated goals, will most certainly produce an environment that is conducive to maintaining success and longevity.



Hammoud, M. S. (2008). Assessing project success: Comparing integrated change management and change management. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304835611?accountid=32521

Merrell, P. (2012, Summer). Effective change management: The simple truth. Management Services. Enfield, UK: Institute of Management Services. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1027234230?accountid=32521

Neilissen, P., & Martine van Selm. (2008). Surviving organizational chage; how management communication helps balance mixed feelings. Bradford, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, Ltd. Retrieved April 10, 2013

Stanley, C. (2007). Managing change through management development: An industry case study. The journal of management development. Bradford, UK. Retrieved April 10, 2013

Yarberry, W. (2007, Mar/April). Effective change management: Ensuring alighment of IT and business functions. New York , UK: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229584201?accountid=32521