Environment

All posts tagged Environment

Environmental Statutes

Published September 20, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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US legal systems are designed to protect citizens in an organized society with respect to a wide number of issues including criminal behavior, domestic and professional relationships, regulations of industry and business, as well as a multitude of other significant issues. One of the most difficult areas to manage and regulate is environmental law. Schroeder (2008) contends environmental laws are difficult to comprehend because of the complexities involved. Environmental laws are meant to constitute the regulations and actions that threaten or physically harm the natural world including the inhabitants of the environment (people, animals, plants, air, water, and so on). Environmental law is considered one of the most complex areas in the legal field because the laws that regulate the environment are derived from a variety of sources, including: (a) federal courts, (b) Congress, (c) various federal administrative agencies, and (d) international treaties. In addition, state legislatures, courts and administrative agencies, local government (cities, towns, and counties) influence these regulations. Because environmental law is a relatively new field, the involvement of these many entities, makes it difficult to analyze the various statutes and regulations that govern them (Schroeder, 2008). Furthermore, different areas of the law require different knowledge like administrative, criminal, and tort laws, as well as understanding the court system, the civil and criminal procedures, and constitutional laws. Plus, the relationships between these areas are not always easy to comprehend or observe. Finally, science also acts as a major contributor to the plethora of environmental issues. For example, an examination of the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water is one factor that can significantly determine the development and enforcement of environmental statutes and regulations.

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One environmental law that is relevant to me as a mother and a children’s learning coach, is Executive Order 13045 – The Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks 62 FR 19883; April 23, 1997. This environmental law is designed to protect children from the health and safety risks of products or substances that a child is likely to come in contact with or ingest (such as the air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink or use, the soil that surrounds us, and the products we use or are exposed to). The EPA’s responsibility is to evaluate the effects of these issues and introduce regulations that provide an explanation as to why the statutes are implemented as well as include information on potentially effective and reasonably feasible alternatives (Summary of executive order 13045 – protection of children from environmental health risks and safety risks, 1997). For example, children in a learning environment typically use and put crayons in their mouths, and some  will even bite into them as an experiment to appease their curiosity about the world that surrounds  them by enlisting the use of their taste pallets. If the crayon is produced from chemicals that are toxic, however, this can present a harmful situation to the children that play with them. This law forces manufacturers to incorporate safer methods, label products with warnings about toxic products, identify those that are non toxic, and punish manufacturers that do not comply. Without these regulations to protect children from harm, parents and teachers cannot feel confident or at ease with the products their children are using if they are not deemed safe indicated by a government agency seal of approval.

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Business leaders for the most part, find dealing with environmental laws taxing. This is due to the complexities that these mandates have evolved into which includes of a system of statutes, regulations, guidelines, requirements, policies, and case-specific judicial and administrative interpretations that address a wide-ranging set of environmental issues and concerns which are created to deal with how humans interact with the environment and ecological systems. However, most business leaders just want to run their business and not have to worry or think about the many regulations they are required to comply with. Ewing and Steinway (2011) postulate that the key issue for business leaders to identify is what role the federal and state government plays in operating their business. For example, the traditional command and control system involves the establishment of environmental standards and permit enforcement procedures, liability assignment, and penalties (criminal and/or noncriminal) for noncompliance. These regulating authorities are granted the power to issue permits or licenses that authorize or prohibit activities that contaminate, harm, or cause pollution. Business leaders must comply with these mandates to operate their business to avoid penalties and fines (Ewing & Steinway, 2011). State groundwater protection laws, for example, provide detailed information that help business leaders better understand the permit programs they may require for their industry. For the most part, environmental laws serve to protect the environment as well as keep us safe from the products we use, protect the air we breathe and make sure the foods we eat are not contaminated. In conclusion, environmental regulations are meant to prevent industries from poisoning and contaminating the environmental and ecological fabric that we all rely on for our existence.

Next week concludes my research on business law with a three part blog that covers sexual harassment and discrimination laws. Until then have a great weekend everyone!

References:

(1997). Summary of executive order 13045 – protection of children from environmental health risks and safety risks. Washington: EPA. Retrieved September 3, 2013, from http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-executive-order-13045-protection-children-environmental-health-risks-and

Ewing, K., & Steinway, D. (2011). Environmental law. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Schroeder, K. (2008). Environmental law. New York, NY: Delmar Learning.

Social Change Analysis – Part II

Published February 20, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

Analysis and Overview

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Causes of Social Change

Humanity approaches an historical juncture that is prodding social change as the traditional methods of managing human affairs, at the interpersonal and international levels, are becoming less and less effective (Weinstein, 2010). To better comprehend causes of social change, experts study the where and how of material production as well as the distribution and consumption of goods and services significant to society. Studying the ancient past can be instrumental in facilitating homeostasis in the modern era. Without observation and analysis of the social sciences, causes and implications of change would be difficult to ascertain.

Experts also take into consideration demographic changes. In addition, researchers labor to comprehend the various natures of population transformations and the scale of a civilization’s interconnectedness that involves both the expansion and amplification of economic relationships (Dicken, 2011). Without sufficient knowledge of these components, all geographies of development can be disrupted.

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Conditions of Social Change

Researchers acquiesce that social change is brought on by transformational conditions that include: (a) significant events like invasions or earthquakes; (b) repeating cycles, patterns, and trends on a macroscopic level; and (c) from social activities that affect individuals (Chase-Dunn & Babones, 2006). In other words, barriers and obstacles that arise from causes like world events and behaviors of groups that seek basic human rights for example, are some of the elements that drive social change.

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Functioning Structures and Innovations

Social change can also influence the efficiency and functionality of nations.  Conflicts that occur extend opportunities for cultural evolution as a society interprets the variety of components that motivate action from them.  The conflict perspective theory of the social sciences, suggests cultural change evolves at a particular point in time when the availability of resources and opportunities alter as a result from collective action or reform.  The structural functionalism theory also known as the functionalist theory, looks at the interconnectedness of a society and how they function together to promote their system.  For example, scarcity of resources creates strain and conflict within a culture that disrupt functioning systems. Struggles with issues like inequality and ideology can also become engines of change (Weinstein, 2010).

Innovations occur as a result of the grievances and unrest that emerge in a society. These certain (often hidden) motivators emerge from a lack of an effective, efficient or equitable system (Cels & de Jong, 2012). There are four phases of the innovation stage: (a) a clear awareness of a challenge; (b) the setting, conditions, and the assembly of the elements involved; (c) a new meaning, configuration, or a eureka moment; and (d) a crucial upgrade or revision to an invention. These innovations are likely to succeed when a society is ready to adapt them.

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Environmental Factors and Cycles

Catastrophic events like typhoons, earthquakes and landslides, present new problems that have consequential effects on a population and their migration.  Scientific research confirms that climate change has an effect on the environment. McNall (2011) purports that human impact of change on the global environment has effected the levels of CO2 on our planet that is higher now than at any time in the last 650,000 years. He cites this for one reason that everything frozen on the planet thawing (McNall, 2011).

Identifying patterns of change in the economic and political aspects of a society is essential in understanding developmental change.  An economic theory of politics (also known as public choice) applies a more rational look at cultural behavior. By studying linear, cyclical and dialectical models of change, experts can assess whether patterns will follow a linear before and after frame, or a cyclical pattern, by determining if it is capable of returning to the same point (Weinstein, 2010).

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Basic Strategies of Change

Fundamental strategies can assist in the delineation of change that outline characteristics and boundaries of a population or system. These strategies can facilitate challenges between leaders and factions (Weinstein, 2010). Some of these tactics involve education, persuasion, and power as well as violent and nonviolent action.  Leaders that are capable of identifying problems and needs are able to make effective changes.

External assistance can also be a factor for those open to receiving it. This is especially true when it instigates community improvement and active participation with focus on an end goal (Weinstein, 2010). In short, a variety of ideas that are substantially different from the status quo, whether as modifications, substitutions or mutations of materials, also play an important role in stimulating cultural movement and growth.

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Changes in Ideology

As a civilization evolves, a culture’s ideological beliefs also helps shape the development of humankind.  For example, politicians, artists, and social activitists garner the power of the market with innovative ideology.  They contend the ability to champion a better ideology, also referred to as cultural orthodoxy, is the key to creating a demand for a new culture (Holt & Cameron, 2010).  In the meantime, archeological and mythological records of early civilizations typically focused their energy on pleasing their Gods to attain favorable conditions.  This major component is a commonality that shaped earlier cultures.

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Invasions and War

Social change is also incurred from the hostilities that arise in groups due to: (a) sorrows and grievances; (b) the incompetence of leaders to manage challenges; (c) the difficulties in adapting to change; or (d) a shift or circulation of new radical concepts and ideologies.  These components offer a fertile breeding ground for conflict that can lead to revolution and battle. Social change scientists look at the interconnectedness of a culture with a scientific approach to the components that drive them on a macro level.  Bauer’s (2007) research concludes that the interconnectedness of governments, religion, the urban environment, social structure, and the economy of earlier civilizations, extends for millenia (Bauer, 2007). To illustrate these constructs we will examine man’s earliest civilization to better comprehend ours in our next post.

 To Be Continued … Part III – An Ancient World View

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References

Bauer, S. (2007). The history of the ancient world. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, LLC.

Cels, S., & de Jong, J. (2012). Agents of change: Strategy and tactics for social innovation. Harrisonburg, VA: R. R. Donnelley Publishing.

Chase-Dunn, C., & Babones, S. (2006). Global social change. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

Dicken, P. (2011). Global shift: Mapping the changing contours of the world economy. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Holt, D., & Cameron, D. (2010). Cultural strategy: Using innovative ideologies to build breakthroughs. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

McNall, S. (2011). Rapid climate change: Causes, consequences, and solutions. New York, NY: Routledge Publishing.

Weinstein, J. (2010). Social change. Pymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Social Change Analysis – Part I

Published February 18, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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ABSTRACT

This extensive research is broken into three parts and takes an in-depth look at the constructs and implications of social movements that emerge from various conflicts and cycles. This analysis includes: (a) the theories behind the conditions, the trends, the political processes, and the environmental factors that act as locomotives of change; (b) the functioning structures and innovations; (c) strategies that civilizations incorporate to adjust to climate change, migration, famine, and war; (d) influences from changes in ideology and social status; and (e) the effects on resources by population growth.  To illustrate this our research looks at the beginning of the human agency to the land of Mesopotamia and the cradle of civilization. In doing so, we can learn from their struggles, their strains, their cycles and patterns, and their conflict management methodologies to help us determine more effective ways of application in the modern era. Our conclusions deduce that in studying the past and the elements that facilitated the rise of the human genus, we can learn from the components of change to avert a similar demise in the modern era.

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Social Change in the Ancient World

INTRODUCTION

The pervasive feeling is that something fundamental is occurring worldwide with the current explosion of interest in globalization and feelings of uncertainty has intensified. There is an increased awareness of what is transpiring in one part of the world that has a deep affect (sometimes immediate) by events unfolding in other parts of the world (Dicken, 2011). In analyzing how we arrived at this juncture, studying the ancient world can give us clues.

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Many individuals in the meantime, often become confused by the mythological depictions and cultural belief systems of ancient civilizations. The quest of the modern seeker is to establish an erudition of our ancestors and the components that incurred social change by examining the momentous shifts that transpired in the human condition (Free, 2011). This research examines the major causes and underlying conditions that prompted social change in the ancient past, as well as the main choices, innovations, and factors that ancient cultures faced in their attempts to shape their individual and collective futures.  We will also examine humanity’s comprehension of the ancient world on macro and micro levels as well as the various patterns and cycles that shaped it. By scrutinizing earlier civilizations of the human agency, we can learn from the management of their successes and failures.  Learning from the demise of past civilizations helps us comprehend and avert analogous conditions in the modern era that can decelerate the upgrade and reconfiguration process of human destiny.

 To Be Continued … Part II – An Overview and Analysis of Social Change

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REFERENCES:

Dicken, P. (2011). Global shift: Mapping the changing contours of the world economy. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Free, J. (2011). Sumerian religion: Secrets of the Anunnaki. New York, NY: CreateSpace Independent Publishing.