All posts tagged Garvin

Learning Organizations and Effectiveness – Part II

Published May 17, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair


Transitioning Into a Learning Organization

As the world continues to expand, older models of running an organization, under the direction of a unilateral black box control system, are proving ineffective. These forms of control usually develop from individuals trying to control the situation like Steve Jobs displayed during his reign at Apple. In today’s ever evolving marketplace, leaders are finding success by developing organizations that center on relationships with the intent of creating a whole entity from a variety of components. This is a type of operational control system that is attached to ongoing and real time explanations between divisions and is designed to achieve stability in organizational relationships (Espejo & Reyes, 2011).

Institutions that are making the transition into an effective, well-oiled learning-machine incorporate mechanisms to include a systematic collection of information for analysis and dissemination. They are open to new ideas and focus on cooperative education and training by conceiving programs that meet their needs. Learning is conducted over an expanse of time. Leaders implement clear communication devices, seek unfiltered information, and engage in advanced levels of problem solving. These are tools that help motivate staffers to work together in a cohesive manner and require full participation as well as accountability (Cates, 2009). Organizations that embrace openness to criticism and accept change increase their odds in succeeding.

To effectively transit into a learning organization, leaders must conduct annual and monthly reviews to help identify their strengths and weaknesses. Information collected from these reports is used to decide strategies that can assist to develop higher skill levels.  Used effectively they provide systems that serve to motivate advanced performances (Silberman, 2007). For example, annual reviews give insight to the volume of transactions an organization generates, identifies individuals who experience more developed levels of achievement, and reveals areas where improvement is needed. These systems help organizations strengthen their weaknesses.

Make things happen

Four Motivational Characteristics

Companies are likely to achieve higher levels of success by becoming a learning organization because it fosters a climate of collaboration. Four motivational characteristics of an effective learning organization are: (1) collection of data and intelligence, (2) experiential learning processes, (3) experimentation with new ideas, and (4) changing unfavorable conditions by sharing information and building strong relationships (Garvin, 2000).

The Collection of Data and Intelligence – Because organizations are not always adept at delivering positive outcomes, devising methods to collect data and intelligence from personnel, suppliers, partners, distributors, consumers, and others is essential. This can be accomplished by methods that measure performance levels. This includes surveys, observation, appraisal systems, financial reviews, knowledge testing and skill assessments that are used to ascertain performance levels, and competency gaps (Roberts, 2012).

The Experiential Learning Process – Most scholars are in agreement that experience is a factor that is underestimated and in some cases disregarded. However, research reveals that experience pervades all manners of the learning process. Experiential learning encompasses an individual’s active engagement from both the inner and outer world. Active participation is the key element of experiential learning because it involves the entire person through thoughts, emotions, and physical activity (Beard & Wilson, 2006).

Experimentation of New Ideas – Experimentation is a fairly new concept in organizational management and therefore an uncommon practice other than for market research and research and development purposes. For experimentation to truly become effective, organizations must encourage an open atmosphere that considers all views. Experimentation in this context attempts to produce or prove something new and creates a series of events and activities that can be analyzed in order to discover unidentified barriers. Effective experiments gather data that is important in the development and management of the organization (McClain & Smith, 2006).

Sharing Information – Effective leaders also understand the importance of collaborative management and develop cohesive systems. They build strong relationships and create a foundation in which they become more adept at working together to achieve outcomes and desired solutions. By establishing a shared vision and clear channels to open communication where people feel safe in sharing knowledge, they build a genuine trust and camaraderie. This is an integral component that can determine a company’s failure or success. Efficient business collaboration unites individuals, increases performance and productivity, and gives an organization a competitive advantage (Peterson, 2001).


Achieving Goals

Learning organizations that work together and collaborate are capable of achieving higher levels of success because everyone is focused on a common goal that is larger than their individual goals. For example, they strive to make their organization safer, logical, standardized, and fluid. Additionally, they are connected in more cost effective ways, upgrading their systems and policies in doing so (Galsworth, 2005).

Furthermore, organizations strive to ensure they achieve the outcomes they desire.  Once data from knowledge management systems are collected, received, interpreted, and processed, priorities and deadlines are implemented to help keep them on track to accomplish their goals. Follow ups and feedback are essential to monitor effective and ineffective systems. Evaluation of systems and experimental results also helps discern errors and is factored in for the development or adjustments that will make the organization run more efficiently and the staff work together more productively.

Organizations also implement the use of electronic communication devices as a means to achieve their goals and facilitate the learning experience. This includes the implementation of discussion boards, social networking, and instant messaging tools. These components allow organizations to communicate and coordinate events and programs in real time from remote locations removing time and space limitations. In addition, organizations work collaboratively to address and achieve larger goals like environment problems, unemployment, urban development and more (Fink, 2007).


Identifying Obstacles

Today’s leaders are learning to become more flexible as they endure enormous amounts of external pressure to survive.  In order to achieve the desired outcomes leaders are required to identify the following types of system blindness that can hinder their goals: (a) spatial, (b) temporal, (c) relational, (d) process, and (e) uncertainty. Spatial blindness, for example, only allows a fragmented viewing of a system, not the entire whole. Relational system blindness, on the other hand, is the perception an individual may experience by perceiving only what is happening to them, not necessarily what is occurring elsewhere. Identifying system blind spots can help leaders understand some of the challenges they encounter (Oshry, 2007).

Situations that are stressful and create fear also create obstacles. For example, Reason’s (2010) studies indicate leaders who engage in methods of intimidation constrict the learning process. Because of this, leaders must learn that fostering a culture of stress and fear creates an environment that encourages learning disabilities (Reason, 2010). Leaders who are able to identify organizational disabilities can tackle elements that threaten a company’s productivity. Instead, they adopt strategies to support organizational learning by creating an environment that nurtures innovative patterns of thinking. Therefore, organizations need to work together to achieve a collective vision that thrives and must strategically implement programs and systems that are designed to help them produce the outcomes they desire. In doing so, they can motivate genuine learning. Team members are inspired because they are focused on more significant matters. Effective leaders know how to bridge teamwork and fabricate a creative climate that is free from confining attitudes (Senge, 2006). Leaders who have functioned together as part of a team or group that has achieved extraordinary goals comprehend the advantages of a collaborative learning experience. There is an acknowledgment and recognition in each other’s strengths and compensation to make up for each other’s weaknesses.


Strategies for Successful Outcomes

Learning organizations have the ability to introduce innovative opportunities that solve issues. One fundamental element to efficient learning is the innate ability to reflect and review the learning process. This helps identify which methods are effective and which are not. Spitzer (2007) postulates the key to success is measurement because it can reveal the organization’s current position in the marketplace, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and helps in the development of new goals. For this reason, performance measures have a transformational effect (Spitzer, 2007).

Decentralization of the decision making process is another effective strategy for positive outcomes. This exists where organizations foster a climate of trust and unbiased communication systems. This model can address the needs of the whole company rather than that of one individual who is leading with a personal agenda. In addition, when organizations run into issues based on gender, race, and age, working together in collaborative effort can minimize these kinds of challenges (Peterson, 2001).



The reality is that we are all discovering how to learn together and are inherently evolving into a learning community. Leaders are beginning to understand that people are capable of learning quicker when they put their attention on actions that solve problems. In the long run, an organization’s ability to learn faster than the competition will likely be the key component to their longevity. This research concludes that a healthy learning environment fosters good decision making. It is derived from knowledge, hard work, experience, and in some cases, as a result of bad decision making. Organizations that learn to adapt by identifying their errors and seek new opportunities for learning will set themselves up for a prosperous existence.

A successful learning organization is the driving engine that motivates and inspires individuals. The most effective leaders today are flexible, apply active listening skills, and develop methods that will improve organizational performances. Even though it stifles growth, organizations are likely to achieve higher levels of success by becoming a learning organization because it fosters a climate of trust; creates a culture of decentralized decision making; and it integrates people, systems, and technology. Leaders that adapt a learning paradigm will most likely outlive those resistant to change.


Baack, D. (2012). Organizational behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Beard, C., & Wilson, J. (2006). Experiential learning: A best practice handbook (2nd ed.). London, England, UK: Kogan Page.

Bingham, T., & Conner, M. (2010). The new social learning: a guide to transforming organizations through social media. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Blevins, R. (2001). A study of association between organizational trust and decision-making, communications, and collaboration in comprehensive, regional institutions of higher education. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved April24 2013, from

Cates, C. L. (2009, May 17). The creation of a large scale corporate feedback system with a view toward learning organizations and sustainable change in higher education. Cincinnati, OH, USA: ProQuest LLC. Retrieved April 4, 2013

Espejo, R., & Reyes, A. (2011). Organizational systems: Managing complexity with the viable system model. New York, NY: SPi Publisher Services.

Fink, L. (2007, Jul-Sep). Coordination, learning, and innovation: The organizational roles of e-collaboration and their impacts. International Journal of E-Collaboration. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. Retrieved April 24, 2013, from

Galsworth, G. (2005). Visual workplace visual thinking. Portland, OR: Visual-Lean Enterprise Press.

Garvin, D. (2000). Learning in action: A guide to putting the learning organization to work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Haney, D. (2003). Knowledge management in a professional service firm. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Ann Arbor, IN, USA: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from

McClain, B., & Smith, D. (2006). Experimentation in a collaborative planning environment. Monterey, CA: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.

Oshry, B. (2007). Seeing systems: Unlocking the mysteries of organizational life. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Peterson, M. (2001, February). International collaboration in organizational behavior research. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Chichester, US: Wiley Periodicals Inc. Retrieved April 24, 2013, from

Reason, C. (2010). Leading a learning organization. Bloomington, IN : Solution Tree Press.

Roberts, J. (2012). Beyond learning by doing: Theoretical currents in experiential education. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Schein, E. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Senge, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday Publishing.

Silberman, M. (2007). The handbook of experiential learning. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Spitzer, D. R. (2007). Transforming performance measurement: Rethinking the way we measure and drive organizational success. New York, NY: AMACOM Books.

Ward, T. (2006). Implementing knowledge management to support effective decision making in a joint military environment: Key enablers and obstacles. Minneapolis, MN, USA: ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from

Wick, C., Pollock, R., & Jefferson, A. (2010). The six disciplines of breakthrough learning. San Franciso, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

The Learning Paradigm

Published May 13, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair


Scholars confirm that to maintain a successful place in today’s global market, there is a need for organizations to be flexible and as a result, today’s CEOs are learning to make necessary adaptations in order to achieve their goals. In addition, because leaders are being bombarded by enormous amounts of external pressure to survive, they have come to understand that learning is the key to their long-term survival and growth. Research indicates that executives are devoting more time to educating their staff and transforming their companies into learning organizations in order to keep up with the expanding global marketplace.  In other words, they are actively seeking opportunities for learning and create an environment with events and activities that support the learning process (Garvin, 2000).


In addition, effective executives acknowledge that their actions create their reality. If they want to see a different reality, they must learn to take measures that employ efficient strategies. This includes plans that are designed with specific goals to achieve the outcomes they envision. Successful leaders in today’s global marketplace are the ones that tackle organizational learning disabilities because they pose a threat to the company’s productivity.  By adopting strategies that support a learning organization, executives are setting up an environment that nurtures new and expansive patterns of thinking, where collective aspiration thrives and people work together on learning how to produce the results they desire. Leaders that have the flexibility to move their organizations toward a learning paradigm know how to ignite and reignite that spark of genuine learning because it helps drive individuals to focus on what really matters.  Strong leaders are capable of bridging teamwork into macro-creativity and create a climate that is free of confining assumptions and mindsets (Senge, 2006).


People learn faster when they put their knowledge into action solving problems. Marquardt et al. (2009) refer to this as action learning.  The emphasis on learning is what makes this process strategic rather than tactical in equipping leaders to respond to change more effectively.  Simply translated it is the dynamic process that involves a small group of people working together to solve real organizational problems, while focusing on how their learning can benefit individuals, groups, and the organization as a whole (Marquardt, Skipton, Freedman, & Hill, 2009). I believe successful leaders in today’s organizations must have the flexibility to move their institutions toward a learning paradigm, by applying superior active listening and developing skills that will improve individual, team, and organizational performances. In conclusion, leaders that are flexible and adapt a learning paradigm will most likely outlast those that are too rigid and resistant to change.



Garvin, D. (2000). Learning in action: A guide to putting the learning organization to work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Marquardt, M., Skipton, L., Freedman, A., & Hill, C. (2009). Action learning for developing leaders and organizations: Principles, strategies and cases. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Senge, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Doubleday Publishing.

Organizational Experimentation

Published May 6, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair


Unprecedented changes in the global marketplace have helped ignite a revolutionary reformation in the design of organizations as a result of the many challenges executives confront. For one thing, organizations are reevaluating the distribution of power and how information is shared.  Firms are expanding and changing their boundaries.  Partnerships and alliances, for example, have become more significant. Flexibility and a high quality of production and service is one competitive objective that organizations seek to achieve. To provide a menu of high quality choices organizations are creating more autonomous teams of workers. As a result, leading experts in corporate design are examining the best methods to create speed, variety and flexibility to expand the company over time and international boundaries to help prepare them for the next century (Bowman & Kogut, 1995). One method organizations employ to help redesign their firm is experimentation.


Garvin (2000) contends experimentation is an uncommon practice in most organizational settings other than in the R&D and market research divisions. For experiments to have a lasting effect, the primary objective of making one’s case as the preferred position must change. For experimentation to really be effective, organizations must learn to adapt a more open perspective and consider all opposing views. In other words, leaders must embrace knowledge as conditional and outcomes as speculative. In an organizational context, experimentation takes on several definitions: the act of attempting something new or proving it; a temporary system, a practice or series of events that are examined in order to discover something unidentified, where procedures are carefully and intentionally constructed to produce intelligence, wisdom, and productivity that translates into profits and growth. This is typically conducted through a preplanned series of trials, errors, and comparisons (Garvin, 2000).


An effective organizational experiment should include the following components: (a) pre-experimental planning, (b) data collection, (c) initiative and objective development, (d) experiment execution, and (e) post experiment analysis (McClain & Smith, 2006). As a former employee in the mortgage and loan industry, a growing number of clients at that time, communicated an interest in foreclosure property investments. This was a new arena for our organization, so our leaders decided to investigate and explore this market further.


Initially a simple experiment was launched to discern how lucrative this market was. An employee traveled to and from the County Recorder’s Office collecting and logging Public Notice information manually in a ledger book. This information was later transcribed and transferred to an electronic format and stored on the company’s server for examination. In addition, analysis and feedback from the employee collecting the data was taken into consideration to formulate a plan and design a software program to create a more efficient cost effective system to retrieve and process the information as investors rapidly consumed the reports we offered. To keep up with consumer demand, the next phase of the experiment involved the inclusion of paying a monthly fee to access the County Recorder’s data from our company’s server. Once the new system was in place and the software program was designed, data was retrieved from the home office, without the employee losing travel time. This new method proved more cost effective. The information could now be retrieved and analyzed immediately, transferred and dispersed into reports in unprecedented time, giving our organization a competitive edge with investors. Within a year’s time, websites emerged offering the data as well for even quicker assessment. As a result of the experimentation and with so many available resources to collect and process this information, our organization established a new Foreclosure Finder Service division that focused serving clients with special interests. Our leaders were cognizant, that for real innovation to occur, active approaches like the experiment we conducted, are essential for organizations that want the upper hand in a competitive marketplace.



Bowman, E., & Kogut, B. (1995). Redesiging the firm. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Garvin, D. (2000). Learning in action: A guide to putting the learning organization to work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

McClain, B., & Smith, D. (2006). Experimentation in a collaborative planning environment. Monterey, CA: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.

Organizational Learning Processes

Published April 22, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair


There is a growing interest in the learning processes in organizational contexts fueled by a belief that innovation and education are essential for survival. Garvin (2000) postulates, that there is no one way of successful learning. Although leaders command an arsenal of skills, each method of education remains consistent, in that it requires the acquisition, interpretation, and application of new information (Garvin, 2000). We were assigned a task this week. We were to assume the top manager role of a major clothing store asked to help design a program to increase the level of organizational learning. As the top manager, my first strategy is to conduct an analysis to ascertain the current organizational behavior and develop a way to retrieve unfiltered information from the hearts and minds of the staff. The data gathered would consist of accurate intelligence and up-to-date information. The information collection process would center on identifying and comprehending behavior that is influenced by: (a) the technologies available, (b) the barriers and regulations that are implemented, and (c) the social demographics. This method would serve to acknowledge weaknesses and strengths that will assist in the design of an effective program to increase the level of organizational learning.


Another strategy I would consider, is to include the formation of systems that incorporate employee self-analysis and assessment. This helps to encourage a learning culture that embraces openness from direct observation, feedback and evaluation as part of the process. Argyris (1992) states organizational learning is a proficiency that all organizations should cultivate. The better they are at learning the more likely they can identify and correct errors as well as recognize when they are unable to detect and correct their own miscalculations. He contends that organizational defenses are one of the most significant barriers to learning. These defenses include policies, practices, or actions that prevent participants (at any level) from experiencing growth. In this context, organizational defenses are anti-learning and overprotective. For this reason, the data collection process for the clothing store must be constructed to identify existing barriers and defenses that can obstruct the learning process. This is one way to help identify policies and actions that prevent growth (Argyris, 1992).


Research shows that questionnaires are the most popular method used to gather information, because they obtain subjective data about the participants, with measurable documented results that can be analyzed. In order to develop an effective information gathering plan, data may be collected by survey, interview or focus group. The data collection plan would: (a) focus on specific topics, (b) contain appropriate tested questions, (c) include participation from the stakeholders, and (d) address any anonymity issues. The observation design process must also include the ease of analysis, tabulation and summation. Once the unfiltered data is collected, it will be examined and disseminated to identify problems and trouble spots that distinguish which systems are successful and which models are not as effective (Phillips & Stawarski, 2008).  Furthermore and equally important, as a means to connect emotionally and engage staff enthusiasm and support, I would recommend a briefing for the participants.  I would provide an explanation for the significance of the program and articulate that it is part of a special campaign with end goals that will reflect positive results. Finally, I would endorse the use of incentives and include an introduction video or other form of electronic communication from the highest executive officer to personalize the plan and help manage any employee fears. For the clothing company scenario, the combination of these strategies will help provide the detailed intelligence required in the development and design of a more effective learning organization.



Argyris, C. (1992). on organizational learning (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Inc.

Garvin, D. (2000). Learning in action: A guide to putting the learning organization to work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Phillips, P. P., & Stawarski, C. A. (2008). Data collection: Planning for and Collecting all types of data. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Learning Organizations

Published April 19, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair



Garvin postulates that learning organizations are enterprises skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting, transferring and retaining knowledge; purposefully modifying behavior to reflect the new knowledge. There are six critical activities that must transpire within a learning organization that includes: (1) the collection of data and intelligence, (2) bench-marking or learning from the successful practices of others, (3) learning from past history and experience, (4) experimentation of new ideas, (5) the encouragement of systematic problem solving, and (6) sharing that information throughout the organization. Knowing what to do, doing what we know, and following through are the three key components that affect the learning process. Failure will most likely occur when leaders seek solutions to problems from a very narrow parameter and from one source only. Learning is not a random event; it occurs as a result of pursuing clearly aligned goals (Garvin, 2003). Furthermore, it is difficult to learn effectively from one experience alone. This research examines learning organizations and the significance of components that affect the learning process including: (a) an openness to new perspectives; (b) receiving unfiltered information; (c) the acknowledgement of strengths, weaknesses, and biases; and (d) the ability to perform with a sense of humility.


Cooperative Education

Organizations that apply specific learning mechanisms allow systematic collection, analysis, storage, dissemination, and the use of information that is applicable to their effectiveness (Lipshitz, Raanan, Popper, Micha, Oz, & Sasson, 1996). In addition, effective learning organizations must remain open to new ideas. Cooperative education focuses on the basic conceptual differences between education and training. In a rapidly changing world however, neither education nor training has the longevity they once enjoyed. Innovation for example, must begin with the recognition that the instructors do not produce learning. Learning is conducted by the learner alone and occurs over a period of time, especially once the student engages actively in the new acquired training. Effective teachers need to become designers of the learning process in participation with the student. To ensure that organizations remain in control of their destiny, each one must develop new approaches, evaluate, educate, and make applicable adjustments in order to creative a cohesive model. Successful learning organizations create clear communication, engage in advanced levels of problem solving, and consist of personnel that are highly motivated, accountable, and work as a cohesive team (Cates, 2009).


Capitol-EMI Records, my former place of employment, for example, evolved into a cohesive learning organization as a result of the ongoing development from technological upgrades. Management learned to work together as a team in conjunction with the manufacturing plants, corporate offices, and the artists to transit from each model of intellectual property. Initially, the product delivery system for music albums, for instance, was comprised of a porcelain record disc. The next phase of development occurred when the delivery system adapted a more durable vinyl format. Music products continued to evolve with the development of the 8-track system, which was followed by the introduction of a more condensed version in the manufacturing of cassette tapes. The next shift occurred when audio manufacturing transited from an analog system to a digital platform when the compact disc was introduced. Music was now produced from a higher quality audio signal whose digital representation paralleled that of a live concert event. Although compact discs are still available for purchase, the current industry standard allows consumers to download products in an MP3 file format direct to their electronic devices. Capitol-EMI, along with all the other record industry giants learned to evolve and adapted to the changing trends and technologies to contend with the competition, remain profitable, and maintain a share of the marketplace to satisfy consumer appetites.

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Application and Examples

Research conducted by Bersin and Associates (2008) identified 80 organizations that represent best practices in the implementation and execution of the learning process that drives their business. These institutes were chosen because they exceed industry averages and incorporate many best practice mechanisms of organizational learning. Executives provided details for this research on a variety of factors including: (a) the types of learning services implemented; (b) the relationship between HR and corporate learning, (c) the performance management methods adopted, (d) attention to the needs of young workers, (e) the use of advanced technologies, (f) e-learning capabilities, (g) employee career path guidance, (h) global training capabilities, and more. Their research concludes that the organizations developed advanced skills and maturity in strategic planning, learning programs and delivery systems, effective talent management, efficient technology and infrastructure, and valuable performance measurement and analysis (Anonymous, 2008). One of the outstanding learning companies identified in the Bersin research is Home Depot (HD). HD employees take pride that their organization is a people-centered institution. Staffers share the consequences of both successful and failed performances. In addition, HD displays solidarity during challenging times and a keen ability to learn from their hardships. One such example occurred when CEO Robert Nardelli assumed the helm of the organization. Under his militaristic style of leadership, the corporation suffered significant market share loss. The organization discovered that the former GE leader’s tactics which received success in his previous arena, proved ineffective in the HD culture. Nardelli was eventually removed and the HD Board of Directors made effectual changes as a result of that valuable experience.

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Acquiring knowledge from one experience only does not produce strong results, especially in a competitive expanding global marketplace. In addition, learning organizations must remain open to innovative ideas and cultivate a climate that supports team learning in alignment with organizational goals. Organizations that embrace openness to criticism and accept change, where the rate of learning is equal to the rate of change, will have a better chance of longevity. A healthy learning environment encourages good decision making that is derived from wisdom, knowledge, and experience, often as a result of bad decision making. Organizations that can learn from their mistakes and identify opportunities for learning that tend to get lost along the way, will most likely discover and remain on the path of a long and prosperous existence.


Anonymous. (2008, August 12). Bersin and Associates names 80 high-impact learning organizations. New York, NY, USA: PR Newswire Association LLC. Retrieved April 3, 2012, from

Cates, C. L. (2009, May 17). The creation of a large scale corporate feedback system with a view toward learning organizations and sustainable change in higher education. Cincinnati, OH, USA: ProQuest LLC. Retrieved April 4, 2013

David, G. (Director). (2003). Building a more effective learning organization [Motion Picture].

Lipshitz, Raanan, Popper, Micha, Oz, & Sasson. (1996, September). Building learning organizations: The design and implementation of organizational learning mechanisms. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. Arlington, VA, USA. Retrieved April 3, 2013, from