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Success and Failure

Published June 3, 2015 by Mayrbear's Lair

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Summer Break Edition

(Originally Posted Feb 2013)

success or failure

Success and Failure

There are many factors involved to discern the causes of success and failure in social movements and the efforts required for it to become a widely appealing endeavor that wields significant impact on social change.  Traditionally, movements, particularly the progressive type, have sought to redress social problems such as barriers to status, race and gender equality, as well as democratic practices, economic advancement and social justice.  According to research by Davis and McAdam (2005), theorists generally agree that social movements, if they are meant to have substantial effect and enjoy longevity, require (a) organization, (b) effective leadership, (c) administrative structure, (d) incentives for recruitment, and (e) a means to secure support and access to resources (Davis & McAdam, 2005).

The gathering of young academics in the mid-1960s began to produce more involved organizational and political debates to explain social unrest, transmuting earlier focus on collective behavior to that of collective action.  From this mindset, forward momentum and energy began to take shape in the form of social movements and social movement organizations, like that of Planned Parenthood and The Environment Protection Agency. Other movements, like the Disability Rights Movement, created organizations that have become stable enterprises that secure equal rights and opportunities for persons with disabilities that have minimum impact on social change.

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Another social movement in Europe began to organize in 1997, that called to support worker rights as the European Commission moved toward cuts in social spending. European activists continued their efforts and moved it to the realms of a continental scale. The formation of Jubilee 2000, a global network centered in Europe, campaigned for the eradication of Third World debt.  According to organizers, after only four years of campaigning, they produced successful campaigns of various influence, in 68 countries. The campaigns were autonomous, but shared common goals, information and symbols which gave them an abundant sense of solidarity.  Their ability to communicate, co-ordinate, and cooperate was achieved with the aid of the internet (Tilly, 2004).

Most experts agree that commonalities of social movements that succeed share some of the following group traits from participants:

  1. Worthiness – This also includes the demeanor and mindset of the group participants.
  2. Unity – The organizations ability to unify marketing strategies and materials such as badges, logos, banners, chants, and mission statement.
  3. Numbers – The headcounts, signatures of petitions, communication from constituents and incumbents, their ability to fill streets and large event gatherings.
  4. Commitment – Individuals that brave the bad times, visible participation, absence of social loafing among group members, a wide range of participants that includes elders and physically challenged individuals, subscriptions, varying degrees of sacrifice and last but not least, resistance to repression.

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The media also plays a magnanimous role in the success or failure of social movements. Media coverage of an event can shape public opinion in presidential campaigns, military actions and outbursts of mass protest, to name a few examples. Edward Morgan (2010) postulates that media-saturated bombardment for anniversaries of iconic events, such as presidential inaugurations (and assassinations), to riots at Kent State, offer little more than an endless stream of distracting imagery that has more to do with today’s politics and economics than the reality of yesterday’s social movements (Morgan, 2010). The media’s in-depth coverage provokes deep emotion and passions (both positive and negative) that continue to shape and effect consumer driven capitalism and neo-liberal politics, rather than the social movements themselves.

Morgan points to three fundamental issues with respect to media coverage influence on social movements that include (a) the distortion of historic events by the removal of significant evaluation in the conditions that generate democratic activism, which can reduce the potency of social movements that involve millions of individuals to a few iconic leaders or images; (b) media distortion that can undermine the abilities of a democratic system; and (c) the failure to address the elephant in the room – the systemic characteristics of the elite that contribute in a significant manner to the social ills in which the US and the rest of the globe struggle with (Morgan, 2010).

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Emblems and images for social movement organizations also play an important role in branding and establishing solidarity. This can be witnessed by the Disability Rights movement that initialized and established unified motifs to identify facilities that provide amenities like designated parking areas, wheel chair ramps and restrooms that accommodate the needs of individuals with disabilities. Their symbols and emblems have become a modern staple in contemporary living that we have all come to accept and embrace. Another example of immediate recognition in their emblems and advertisements can be witnessed by the marketing and promotional material derived from organizations that stand up for animal rights like PETA.

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The examples sited here, merely offer a few explanations that can lead to the success or failure of social movement organizations and the strategies employed that continue to aid in their efforts to maintain a strong presence.  These components include the implementation of devices like logos and other symbols identified with their brand. In conclusion, the continued efforts and marketing campaigns organized in social movements serve as reminders of these institutions success, longevity, and the enormous efforts implemented that continue to bring awareness to their causes in an effort to effect positive social change.

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“No pessimist ever discovered the secret of the stars or sailed an uncharted land, or opened a new doorway from the human spirit.” – Helen Keller

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References:

Davis, G., & McAdam, D. (2005). Social Movements and Organization Theory. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Morgan, E. (2010). What really happened to the 1960s: How mass media culture failed American democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Tilly, C. (2004). Social Movements: 1768-2004. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, LLC.

Message Themes

Published October 30, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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A marketer’s goal is to get a powerful message out to their target audience.  Kennedy (2011) suggests the best ads are built with the most persuasive, compelling, intriguing, fascinating message possible. To construct a super powered marketing message advertisers must assess everything and everyone they are up against that are presenting similar messages because their intent is to deliver a message that trumps all others and puts them in a category of uniqueness (Kennedy, 2011).  The strategy that helps marketers achieve these outcomes is doing their homework to come up with a unique selling proposition (USP) justifying their message against the competition. Incorporating a USP into the message theme of an advertising campaign will help the brand stand out above the others and is more likely to remain a fixture in the memories of consumers.

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Before marketers can start to build a tactical business case for content marketing they have to begin with the concept of innovation.  Baack and Clow (2012) explain that message themes are developed into a campaign to transmit key ideas in marketing campaigns. The use of recurring themes helps make the brand stand out more and is more effective at remaining in consumer memories. The message can incorporate different kinds of strategies that target (a) cognitive, (b) affective, or (c) conative responses to make their ads more appealing (Baack & Clow, 2012). For example, back in the 1990s, the Taster’s Choice Coffee Company created a series of ads that became both popular and memorable (Commercial, 1991). The ad conveyed a simple recurring theme in their message that conveyed that life seemed much better sharing a cup of Taster’s Choice coffee with someone special. The recurring theme that communicated their message was constructed in the form of a series of short dramatic scenes like a mini soap opera. Each time the couple would appear in different circumstances while viewers watched their relationship develop. The action was centered around the theme of sharing a cup of coffee each time viewers tuned in to witness the unique circumstances brought them together in each new ad. This advertising strategy was innovative at the time making this ad campaign a phenomenon in the history of TV commercials. This strategy was met with great success because their target audience was focused on people who were hooked to popular soap opera type shows at the time like Dallas and All My Children. Consumers were eagerly waiting for the next commercial to witness the plot development between the couple that was featured in the ads. Not only did sales boom, the Taster’s Choice brand became a part of pop culture during that time as millions of viewers anticipated each new episode to be a witness to the couple’s blossoming relationship. It was considered one of the most effective marketing campaigns on television at that era because of the emotional chord it struck with viewers. The soap opera message theme that delivered their message in that campaign was the bait that kept luring viewers and put Taster’s Choice in consumer memories for a long time. It’s twenty plus years later and I still remember them!

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References:

Baack, D., & Clow, K. (2012). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

1991 Taster’s Choice Coffee Commercial (1991). [Motion Picture]. USA.

Kennedy, D. (2011). The ultimate marketing plan: Target your audience (Fourth ed.). Avon, MA, USA: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.

Brand Marketing Promotion Campaigns

Published October 23, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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Brand Marketing promotions are considered one of the most valid tools for a company in the modern world, especially during times of hardship. Diamond (2011) suggests that retailers in today’s society face challenges they never experienced before. The impact from ventures like catalog only merchants and internet commerce have had a significant impact on a retailer’s ability to maintain successful sales levels. Because of this component, merchants are doing everything in their power to manage these challenges. One way to manage them is to offer exceptional services and develop creative advertising and promotional events that will gain the attention of not only existing clientele, but attract new ones as well (Diamond, 2011). Brand marketing promotions are utilized as a strategic tool to encourage purchasing and help reinforce a company’s conviction in trade development. In economies that fluctuate due to oil prices, unstable manufacturer supplies, and currency fluctuations, trade promotion strategies have become challenging to design, implement and assess. For example, a company that sells auto tires will develop a promotion that offers a free tire with the purchase of three new ones as an incentive to help consumers save money on a significant purchase in tough economic times. This gives them a good guy image and sends a message that they care about struggling consumers. However, before marketers can consider designing trade brand promotion programs, they must first define the parameters to help them determine the most efficient delivery systems.

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The biggest advantage of brand promotions is that they increase customer attraction. Borgeon and Cellich (2012) explain that the strategic goals of trade promotions should: (a) build brand awareness, (b) focus on needs versus demand, (c) reach the target audience, and (d) include a competitiveness response. Today’s trade is characterized by the continual escalation of competition among producer and suppliers, rapid innovation in products, short design and product life cycles, aggressive pricing, and knowledge base competition (Borgeon & Cellich, 2012). As a result of these trends, new approaches are continually developed to serve consumer needs that incorporate a capacity for competitiveness as part of a company’s promotional strategy. For example, a company that wants to sell a new product based on a consumer’s need to include healthier food choices, may set up an in-store promotion that gives out free samples to entice consumers to try them.

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Companies develop many different kinds of trade promotions to entice consumers to try their products. Baack and Clow (2012) purport, companies that design their campaigns with promotional incentives will generate interest and excitement that will stimulate more traffic for their company. These tactics include the use of: (a) coupons, (b) refunds and rebates, (c) contests, (d) sweepstakes, and (e) premiums (Baack & Clow, 2012). The biggest mistakes marketers make is not conducting the research required to create an effective campaign. For example, if a marketer fails to identify their target audience, they stand to lose thousands of dollars in promotional material that was intended to attract a specific consumer because it never reached the intended audience. Advertisers that do not promote their events to the right audience could also face embarrassment and bad publicity from sponsoring contests that no one shows up to. Companies who make the effort to conduct extensive research and implement measurable data collection systems, have a better chance of seeing a return on their investment and are more likely to create memorable trade promotion events that can have a positive long lasting effect on consumers as well as bring success to companies, even during hard economic times.

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References:

Baack, D., & Clow, K. (2012). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

Borgeon, M., & Cellich, C. (2012). Trade promotion strategies best practices. New York, NY: Business Expert Press, LLC.

Diamond, J. (2011). Retail advertising and promotion. Ridge, NY: Fairchild Books.

Buyer Motivations

Published October 9, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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Marketing experts know that the most effective ways to reach their audience is through a powerful message that evokes a feeling and motivates buyers to take action. Kennedy (2011) suggests that successful advertising campaigns implement strategies that focus on a unique selling proposition (USP). This transpires to explain the company’s position with respect to their competition (Kennedy, 2011). For example, Best Buy states it guarantees the lowest prices. They dare consumers to find a lower price and boldly state they will match it. This is one example of how a company telegraphs a message about their benefits through their promises. This tactic is used to effectively appeal to customers that are interested in saving money. Others, however, use tactics like fear to electrify consumers. For example, Allstate Insurance Company uses images of disastrous events like flooding, theft, and automobile fender benders to instill a message of fear. The message they want to communicate with this strategy is that their brand of insurance can bring them comfort during events of great suffering. Companies that express a USP that evoke strong emotions like fear can use it to their advantage to position their services and goods as the answer that addresses their needs. They focus on rousing consumer feelings from their own experiences of significant life changing events. This is one method corporations can use to build consumer trust.

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Marketing experts that use precision marketing methodologies can cut through the noise and focus on winning consumers as fully engaged advocates. Gallagher and Zoratti (2012) postulate that in today’s society, consumers have made it clear they are in control of the communication they tune into. They are voting with their money and their attention by fast forwarding through commercials, opting out of mailing lists, and blocking their phones to avoid solicitors. Consumers, instead, are spreading the information through social networks by voicing their opinions online, with friends, family, colleagues, and the global internet community. Because of this trend corporations are watching their advertising investments deteriorate. Market research reveals that consumer interests and attention are directly related to the salience of the message they transmit (Gallagher & Zoratti, 2012). In other words, in order to engage consumers that are ignoring them, they are finding new methods to penetrate their barriers by gathering extensive research to find out what is relevant to them and what appeals to them emotionally.

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There are many components that advertising firms use to transmit their messages that target relevant consumers. Baack and Clow (2012) contend there are seven major areas of appeal that help form these messages: (a) fear, (b) humor, (c) sex, (d) music, (e) rationality, (f) emotions, or (g) scarcity. Fear is the top emotion that advertisers implement to get their message out while humor is the second. Even though these emotions are not similar, they can, however, be linked together to convey a powerful message (Baack & Clow, 2012). For instance, a company that wants to send a message to men about a new cologne product, may link many of these characteristics to allure an audience. Old Spice, for example, created a very effective commercial about their cologne combining the components of fear, humor, and sex appeal to get the message out about one of their products. The commercial opens with a beautiful muscular man standing in front of a running shower, clothed in nothing but a towel. Using sex appeal in a humorous situation, the man appeals directly to his audience, looking straight into the camera asking the viewer to compare their mate to him while the images fast forward through a variety of heroic scenes ending with the man mounted on a horse reminiscent of a knight in shining armor. This message uses humor, rationality, fear, and sex appeal to communicate to the audience. The ad clearly conveys that the cologne can make their partner more heroic like the man in the commercial if they use Old Spice. The commercial banks on the man’s sex appeal to attract attention, while the concept of fear is implied to those who do not use the product. This advertising strategy communicates to both women and men. The man’s humor and sex appeal allures those who fantasize about a heroic partner, and the emotion of fear speaks to those who are afraid they are not heroic or attractive enough in the eyes of their partners unless they take some kind of action. Advertising teams that engage in precision marketing methods and focus on their target audience, are in a better position to influence buyer motivations and tend to yield the highest results.

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References:

Baack, D., & Clow, K. (2012). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

Gallagher, L., & Zoratti, S. (2012). Precision marketing: Maximizing revenue through relevance. London, UK: Kogan Page Ltd.

Kennedy, D. (2011). The ultimate marketing plan: Target your audience (Fourth ed.). Avon, MA, USA: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.

Attitudes and Values

Published October 2, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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To market a product or a company effectively, management teams must have a concept of how to promote and position themselves to stand apart from the competition. Morgan (2012) postulates that the number one asset any organization or individual has is their unique personality and their attitude. This is what makes them stand apart from the others. A successful image of a company, therefore, can increase the value of that business dramatically. When it comes to creating a corporate image or creating an organizational attitude, perception is one of the most significant components to consider. For instance, one way a company can create an attitude is by conveying that their brand is not merely a campaign that makes promises, but that their actions and behavior convey a commitment to keep those promises (Morgan, 2012). Business leaders that comprehend this concept are ahead of the game when it comes to creating value. In short, their attitude can also bring them added value.

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Leaders that distinguish the difference between attitude and values are more likely to develop a brand that will experience long lasting success as well as build solid relationships and a loyal customer following. Baack and Clow (2012) explain that attitudes also reflect individual values and that these perceived values and attitudes are key roles that influence consumer decisions. For example, typically, educated consumers incorporate two strategies in the decision making process that can influence their feeling or attitude: (a) the gathering of information and (b) the evaluation of alternate choices. Motivation also plays a role in swaying their attitude in the decision making process. This element determines the amount of enthusiasm they engage to support their needs and wants. Additionally, lower costs and higher benefits are factors that can influence consumer emotions and attitudes. These are a few components that help shape consumer feelings toward making decisions and remaining loyal (Baack & Clow, 2012). This means it is in the company’s best interest to develop strategies that provide consumers with substantial information about their products and services as well as a reason why they offer the best choices over any alternatives. These are factors that can help communicate a positive company image to consumers. This in turn affects their attitude and ultimately makes the company more valuable to them.

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There are many ways a company can create an image or present a company attitude that brings value to consumers. Vincent (2012) suggests that to achieve the most effective results to help shape a positive attitude, marketing strategists should address the following questions:

  • How indispensable is the brand to customers?
  • What is the rate of employee turnover?
  • What does the brand do that is better than any competitor and why is it significant?
  • How easy is it for competitors to replicate the brand experience?
  • How easy is it for customers to do business with the brand?
  • If the brand disappeared tomorrow would anyone care?

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By addressing these topics leaders can help create an experience that will shape a positive feeling or attitude in their consumers which in turn builds trust and confidence (Vincent, 2012). The Starbucks Corporation provides a good example of how a company’s attitude can influence their value. Prior to Starbucks’ genesis, people were used to paying under a dollar for coffee and expected free refills. Starbucks marketing strategists created an atmosphere that made people excited about paying more for coffee because of the feeling or experience the brand created. In other words, they built the success of their company on an attitude that communicated it was cool and hip to pay extra money for coffee to have a social front porch experience in an environment that allows internet access. This brilliant strategic move was the key that turned the Starbucks company into a mega empire. In conclusion, marketing teams that understand the distinction between attitude and value are more likely to experience long lasting success.

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References:

Baack, D., & Clow, K. (2012). Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications (Fifth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

Morgan, J. (2012). Brand against the machine: How to build your brand, cut through the marketing noise, and stand out from the competition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Vincent, L. (2012). Brand real: How smart companies live their brand promise and inspire fierce customer loyalty. New York, NY: AMACOM.

Environmental Statutes

Published September 20, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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US legal systems are designed to protect citizens in an organized society with respect to a wide number of issues including criminal behavior, domestic and professional relationships, regulations of industry and business, as well as a multitude of other significant issues. One of the most difficult areas to manage and regulate is environmental law. Schroeder (2008) contends environmental laws are difficult to comprehend because of the complexities involved. Environmental laws are meant to constitute the regulations and actions that threaten or physically harm the natural world including the inhabitants of the environment (people, animals, plants, air, water, and so on). Environmental law is considered one of the most complex areas in the legal field because the laws that regulate the environment are derived from a variety of sources, including: (a) federal courts, (b) Congress, (c) various federal administrative agencies, and (d) international treaties. In addition, state legislatures, courts and administrative agencies, local government (cities, towns, and counties) influence these regulations. Because environmental law is a relatively new field, the involvement of these many entities, makes it difficult to analyze the various statutes and regulations that govern them (Schroeder, 2008). Furthermore, different areas of the law require different knowledge like administrative, criminal, and tort laws, as well as understanding the court system, the civil and criminal procedures, and constitutional laws. Plus, the relationships between these areas are not always easy to comprehend or observe. Finally, science also acts as a major contributor to the plethora of environmental issues. For example, an examination of the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water is one factor that can significantly determine the development and enforcement of environmental statutes and regulations.

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One environmental law that is relevant to me as a mother and a children’s learning coach, is Executive Order 13045 – The Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks 62 FR 19883; April 23, 1997. This environmental law is designed to protect children from the health and safety risks of products or substances that a child is likely to come in contact with or ingest (such as the air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink or use, the soil that surrounds us, and the products we use or are exposed to). The EPA’s responsibility is to evaluate the effects of these issues and introduce regulations that provide an explanation as to why the statutes are implemented as well as include information on potentially effective and reasonably feasible alternatives (Summary of executive order 13045 – protection of children from environmental health risks and safety risks, 1997). For example, children in a learning environment typically use and put crayons in their mouths, and some  will even bite into them as an experiment to appease their curiosity about the world that surrounds  them by enlisting the use of their taste pallets. If the crayon is produced from chemicals that are toxic, however, this can present a harmful situation to the children that play with them. This law forces manufacturers to incorporate safer methods, label products with warnings about toxic products, identify those that are non toxic, and punish manufacturers that do not comply. Without these regulations to protect children from harm, parents and teachers cannot feel confident or at ease with the products their children are using if they are not deemed safe indicated by a government agency seal of approval.

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Business leaders for the most part, find dealing with environmental laws taxing. This is due to the complexities that these mandates have evolved into which includes of a system of statutes, regulations, guidelines, requirements, policies, and case-specific judicial and administrative interpretations that address a wide-ranging set of environmental issues and concerns which are created to deal with how humans interact with the environment and ecological systems. However, most business leaders just want to run their business and not have to worry or think about the many regulations they are required to comply with. Ewing and Steinway (2011) postulate that the key issue for business leaders to identify is what role the federal and state government plays in operating their business. For example, the traditional command and control system involves the establishment of environmental standards and permit enforcement procedures, liability assignment, and penalties (criminal and/or noncriminal) for noncompliance. These regulating authorities are granted the power to issue permits or licenses that authorize or prohibit activities that contaminate, harm, or cause pollution. Business leaders must comply with these mandates to operate their business to avoid penalties and fines (Ewing & Steinway, 2011). State groundwater protection laws, for example, provide detailed information that help business leaders better understand the permit programs they may require for their industry. For the most part, environmental laws serve to protect the environment as well as keep us safe from the products we use, protect the air we breathe and make sure the foods we eat are not contaminated. In conclusion, environmental regulations are meant to prevent industries from poisoning and contaminating the environmental and ecological fabric that we all rely on for our existence.

Next week concludes my research on business law with a three part blog that covers sexual harassment and discrimination laws. Until then have a great weekend everyone!

References:

(1997). Summary of executive order 13045 – protection of children from environmental health risks and safety risks. Washington: EPA. Retrieved September 3, 2013, from http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-executive-order-13045-protection-children-environmental-health-risks-and

Ewing, K., & Steinway, D. (2011). Environmental law. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Schroeder, K. (2008). Environmental law. New York, NY: Delmar Learning.

Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law

Published August 12, 2013 by Mayrbear's Lair

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It is important for business leaders to comprehend the legal parameters in which to operate a business effectively. In other words, business leaders that have a grasp on the law will benefit from that knowledge. The role of the US Constitution, for example, plays as significant part in comprehending the law and protecting citizen rights. Business leaders that learn to interpret and comprehend the provisions it consists of will be ahead of the game in operating a successful organization. The Fourth Amendment is the focus of this post because it is a noteworthy component in the section of the Constitution known as the Bill of Rights. The Fourth Amendment was created to protect US citizens and their possessions. Schulhofer (2012) contends that prior to the establishment of the Fourth Amendment American Colonists were subjected to abusive searches that consisted of authorities plundering their businesses and rummaging through their documents and possessions (Schulhofer, 2012). Other infractions of the Fourth Amendment involve violation of rights by the abusive power of authorities who take advantage of people that are uneducated for instance, or may not be aware of their rights as a citizen. Individuals that have immigrated from foreign countries, for example, and are unable to communicate effectively, in many cases are taken advantage of and discriminated against. The Fourth Amendment is designed to protect US citizens from having their property searched or seized without the authorities having reason and/or obtaining a legitimate warrant to do so.

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The Fourth Amendment benefits citizens and their businesses because it protects them from unwarranted searches and having their possessions confiscated. On the other hand, the Fourth Amendment also benefits authorities because it gives them the right to search and seize evidence from individuals or businesses suspected of illegal conduct that may bring harm to the public at large. Clancy (2008) purported that with respect to any case that involves Fourth Amendment issues the following question must be addressed: does the government activity (whether search or seizure) invade the individual or their business interests that are protected by the amendment (Clancy, 2008). In other words is the activity warranted or not? For example, in today’s world, technological innovations in communication and the internet are creating cause for alarm with respect to the rights of citizens under the Fourth Amendment because of the astounding surveillance capabilities of the government to collect private information and data in the name of national security post the 911 terrorist attack. The questions modern citizens face today is whether this invasion of privacy is an infringement on their Fourth Amendment constitutional rights.

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Furthermore, the act of a search or seizure is very degrading for an individual to experience. In fact, Taslitz (2006) disclosed that the original Fourth Amendment of 1791 was constructed to tame political violence. The truth is, that the early colonists not only complained about taxation without representation, they were outraged that the enforcement of these tax laws were conducted by searches from authorities without evidence of any wrongdoing (Taslitz, 2006). In short, search and seizure were the core issues that motivated the revolutionary war! Authorities that conduct seizures and raids have consciously engaged in an act that strips individuals of their rights and privacy. It is imperative that any authoritative figure who engage in such activity do so legally to prevent the violation of an individual’s US Constitutional rights or robbing any person of their dignity in doing so.

The Fourth Amendment

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

References:

Clancy, T. (2008). The fourth amanedment: Its history and interpretation. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Schulhofer, S. (2012). More essential than ever: The fourth amendment in the twenty-first century. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Taslitz, A. (2006). Reconstructing the fourth amendment: A history of search and seizure. New York, NY: New York University Press.